Probability-Based Routing Symmetry Metrics

  • Qin Wang
  • Fang DongEmail author
  • Xin-Li Yang
  • Rui Yin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 251)


In communication networks, if streams between two endpoints follow the same physical paths for both forward and reverse direction, they are symmetric. Routing asymmetry affects several protocols, and impacts part of traffic analysis techniques. We propose two routing symmetry metrics to express different meanings when talking about routing symmetry, namely, (1) the forward and reverse flows coming from one node to another are exactly the same, and (2) one single node is visited by both flows. The two metrics are termed as identity symmetry and cross symmetry, respectively. Then, we build a model to link the macroscopic symmetry with the microscopic routing behavior, and present some analysis results, thus make it possible to design a routing algorithm with some desired symmetry. The simulation and dataset study show that routing algorithms that generate next hop randomly will lead to a symmetric network, but it is not the case for Internet. Because the paths of Internet are heavily dominated by a small number of prevalent routes, Internet is highly asymmetry.


Routing symmetry Routing behavior model Statistical process 


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Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China University Program, Texas Instruments Semiconductor Technologies (Shanghai)ShanghaiChina
  2. 2.College of Information and Electronic EngineeringZhejiang University City CollegeHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Port Management Office of Haiyan CountyJiaxingChina

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