Transgender Person

  • Anna Camilla ViscontiEmail author


Self-defined gender identity is considered to be one of the most basic aspects of self-determination, dignity and freedom. This chapter investigates how the European Union (EU) manages sex and gender diversity and analyses how the legal status of transgender persons has been conditioned by positive EU law and jurisprudence.

The analysis of EU and international settings highlights a positive trend toward the promotion and defence of transgender persons’ fundamental rights, starting with the fields of equality and non-discrimination on the grounds of gender identity and gender expression. In this perspective, European and international institutional actors, as well as the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) jurisprudence, have played a central supporting role in the implementation of anti-discrimination legislation, which includes sexual orientation and gender identity among the prohibited grounds for discrimination. With strictly regard to the legal situation of transgender persons, “forced sterilisation” represents a particularly relevant profile; the EU has made great efforts to ensure the legal recognition of an individual’s preferred gender identity, without any prior obligation to undergo sterilisation or other medical procedures. Under EU and international law, the recent legal developments show a progressive growth of good practices in EU member states in order to better protect transgender persons’ rights.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Department of Legal and Social SciencesPescaraItaly

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