Microstructural Investigation of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder with Bio-Based Rejuvenators

  • Maria Chiara CavalliEmail author
  • Martins Zaumanis
  • Lily D. Poulikakos
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 20)


Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has become an important source for road materials for energy consumption in asphalt pavement production. In this work, three different bio based rejuvenators were added to the RAP binder: a vegetable oil, a cashew nut shell oil and a tall oil. To better understand the microstructural morphology, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used with quantitative nano-mechanical mapping (QNM) showing how the addition of rejuvenators decreased the elastic moduli of the RAP binder before and after aging procedure. Aim of this work is to enlighten the effect of rejuvenators at the morphology of RAP’s binder.


Reclaimed asphalt binder Rejuvenators Atomic force microscopy Elastic moduli 



Authors would like to thank the Swiss federal office for the environment grant number UTF 489.19.14/IDM 2006.2423.487 for the financial support.


  1. Cavalli, M.C., Partl, M.N., Poulikakos, L.D.: Measuring the binder film residues on black rock in mixtures with high amounts of reclaimed asphalt. J. Clean. Prod. 149, 665–672 (2017). Scholar
  2. Cavalli, M.C., Zaumanis, M., Mazza, E., Partl, M.N., Poulikakos, L.D.: Effect of ageing on the mechanical and chemical properties of binder from RAP treated with bio-based rejuvenators. Compos. B Eng. 141, 174–181 (2018). Scholar
  3. Das, P.K., Baaj, H., Tighe, S., Kringos, N.: Atomic force microscopy to investigate asphalt binders: a state-of-the-art review. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 17(3), 693–718 (2016). Scholar
  4. Das, P.K., Kringos, N., Wallqvist, V., Birgisson, B.: Micromechanical investigation of phase separation in bitumen by combining atomic force microscopy with differential scanning calorimetry results. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 14, 25–37 (2013). Scholar
  5. dos Santos, S., Partl, M.N., Poulikakos, L.D.: From virgin to recycled bitumen: a microstructural view. Compos. B Eng. 80, 177–185 (2015). Scholar
  6. EUROPEAN STANDARD 12697-1 Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 1: Soluble binder content. (2012)Google Scholar
  7. EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1426: Determination of the needle penetration (2012)Google Scholar
  8. EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1427: Determination of the softening point-Ring and Ball method (2012)Google Scholar
  9. Soenen, H., Besamusca, J., Fischer, H.R., Poulikakos, L.D., Planche, J.-P., Das, P.K., Chailleux, E.: Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests. Mater. Struct. 47(7), 1205–1220 (2014). Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Chiara Cavalli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Martins Zaumanis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lily D. Poulikakos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and TechnologyDübendorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.ETH Zurich, Institute for Mechanical SystemsZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations