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Bone Regeneration: Experiences in Dentistry

  • Serena Mazzoni
Chapter
Part of the Fundamental Biomedical Technologies book series (FBMT)

Abstract

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in a novel approach to evaluate craniofacial bone sites by means of high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT). Conventional histological evaluation and corresponding histomorphometric measurements provide only bidimensional information with the consequent risk that the selected slices do not properly represent the entire bone. Three-dimensional imaging methods, like microCT, are indicated to explore the dynamic and spatial distribution of regenerative phenomena in such complex anatomic structures. However, homogeneous tissues with a low attenuation coefficient or heterogeneous materials with a narrow range of attenuation coefficients produce insufficient contrast for absorption-based imaging. For such structures, the imaging quality can be enhanced through the use of phase-contrast microtomography (PhC-microCT). In addition, whereas PhC-microCT is usually based on a single distance between the detector and the sample, holotomography (HT) involves imaging at several distances and then combining the phase shift information to generate 3D reconstructions. HT is helpful when the material of interest has very small variations in attenuation coefficients, which lead to unsatisfactory imaging results even with phase-contrast techniques.

In the present chapter, the most recent breakthroughs in regenerative dentistry will be shown, demonstrating the unique capabilities of the microCT in offering not only an advanced characterization of biomaterials that are promising scaffold candidates but also to investigate the growth kinetics of regenerated bone in different grafted sites in human jaws.

Keywords

Craniofacial bone engineering Bone substitute biomaterials Stem cells Bone mineral density Microarchitecture 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The majority of the research here reported is the result of collaborations created within the Action COST MP1005 “From nano to macro biomaterials (design, processing, characterization, modeling) and applications to stem cells regenerative orthopedic and dental medicine (NAMABIO)” and the PRIN Project – Prot. 20102ZLNJ5 funded by the Italian Ministry of Education and Research.

The author acknowledges Dr. Alessandra Giuliani, Principal Research Scientist at Polytechnic University of Marche, Department of Clinical Sciences, for her fundamental suggestions during the chapter drafting.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serena Mazzoni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical SciencesPolytechnic University of MarcheAnconaItaly

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