Ethico-political Governmentality of Global Immigration and Asylum

  • Dilek Karal


This chapter reveals macro level analysis of data regarding governmentality of immigration and asylum. This chapter starts with a brief history on development of immigration and asylum policies in the world. While observing ethico-political dynamics in policymaking processes and policies, the chapter tackles the issues of problematization of migration and immigrants, securitization of immigration as a technology of governmentality, the promotion of the society and self within the liberal responsibilization paradigm of governmentality. This chapter also covers exclusionary, categorizing, sometimes ethnocentric aspects of post-social/ethico-political governmentality. The question of “How ethico-political technologies/policies problematize immigration, asylum and agents of these issues?” provides us with a picture of a different and mostly repressive/exclusionary character of modern-day immigration and asylum policymaking. This part contends that the ethico-political agenda for governance of immigrants in the world discards global political economic or structural dynamics of international migration and places it into a security-based ethical judgment agenda.


  1. Agier, M. (2011). Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  2. Awoke, M. (2003). UNHCR and the Politics of Refugee Repatriation. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4456. Accessed on 5/12/2016 from:
  3. Bakewell, O. (2008). Research Beyond the Categories: The Importance of Policy Irrelevant Research into Forced Migration. Journal of Refugee Studies, 21(4), 432–453. Scholar
  4. Barnett, M. (2001). Humanitarianism with a Sovereign Face: UNHCR in the Global Undertow. International Migration Review, 35(1), 244–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, L. (2002). Global Governance and the Evolution of the International Refugee Regime. International Journal of Refugee Regime, 14(2), 238–262.Google Scholar
  6. Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N., & Szanton Blanc, C. (1994). Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments and Deterritorialized Nation- States. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Berhanu, K. (2000). Returnees, Resettlement and Power Relations: The making of a political constituency in Humera, Ethiopia. Amsterdam: VU University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Besteman, C. (1996). Representing Violence and Othering Somalia. Cultural Anthropology, 11(1), 120–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Betts, A. (2009). Forced Migration and Global Politics. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Betts, A. (2010). Towards a ‘Soft Law’ Framework for the Protection of Vulnerable Irregular Migrants. International Journal of Refugee Law, 22(2), 209–236. Scholar
  11. Bigo, D. (2002). Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. Scholar
  12. Campell, E. H. (2006). Urban Refugees in Nairobi: Problems of Protection, Mechanisms of Survival, and Possibilities for Integration. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19(3), 396–413. Scholar
  13. Clapham, C. (1996). Africa and the International System: The Politics of State Survival. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, G. (1999). Garissa District Livelihood Security Assessment. Garissa: CARE.Google Scholar
  15. Crisp, J. (2003). No Solutions in Sight: The Problem of Protracted Refugee Situations in Africa. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  16. Cruikshank, B. (1999). The Will to Empower: Democratic Citizens and Other Subjects. London: Cornel University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. European Commission. (2012). 4th Annual Report on Immigration and Asylum. Retrieved from:
  19. European Parliament. (2014). EU Strategy for the Horn of Africa. Retrieved from:
  20. Faist, T., Fauser, M., & Kivisto, P. (2011). The Migration-Development Nexus: A Transnational Perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feller, E. (2001). The Evolution of the International Refugee Protection Regime. Journal of Law and Policy, 5, 129–139.Google Scholar
  22. Ferris, E. G. (1998). Uprooted: Refugees and Forced Migrants. New York: Friendship Press.Google Scholar
  23. Garland, D. (1996). The Limits of Sovereign State: Strategies of Crime Control in Contemporary Society. British Journal of Criminology, 36(4), 445–471. Retrieved from Scholar
  24. Gladden, J. (2012). The Coping Skills of East African Refugees: A Literature Review. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 31(3), 177–196. Scholar
  25. Grabska, K. (2006). Marginalization in Urban Spaces of the Global South: Urban Refugees in Cairo. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19(3), 287–307. Scholar
  26. Gundel, J. (2002). The Migration-Development Nexus: Somalia Case Study. International Migration, 40(5), 255–281. Scholar
  27. Horst, C. (2001). Vital Links in Social Security: Somali Refugees in the Dadaab Camps, Kenya. New Issues in Refugee Research No. 38. Geneva.Google Scholar
  28. Horst, C. (2003). Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Daaab Camps in Kenya. Oxford/New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  29. Horst, C. (2006). Introduction: Refugee Livelihoods: Continuity and Transformations. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 25(2), 6–22. Scholar
  30. Human Rights Watch. (2013). “They Want a Confession” Torture and Ill-Treatment in Ethiopia’s Maekelawi Police Station. Retrieved from:
  31. Inda, J. X. (2006). Border Prophylaxis: Technology, Illegality, and the Government of Immigration. Cultural Dynamics, 18(2), 115–138. Scholar
  32. IOM. (2000). World Migration Report. Retrieved from:
  33. IOM. (2003). World Migration Report: An Overview of International Migration. Retvied from:
  34. IOM. (2013). International Migration and Development: Contributions and Recommendations of the International System. New York: The United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination. Retrieved from
  35. Jackson, R. H. (1990). Quasi States: Sovereignity, International Relations, and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Jacobsen, K. (2005). The Economic Life of Refugees. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  37. Karal, D. (2014). Development of Immigration and Asylum Policies in Africa. Uluslararası Hukuk ve Politika, 10(39), 3–10.Google Scholar
  38. Kaya, A. (2009). Islam, Migration and Integration: The Age of Securitization: Migration, Minorities and Citizenship. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Kibreab, G. (1993). The Myth of Dependency among Camp Refugees in Somalia 1979–1989. Journal of Refugee Studies, 6(4), 321–349.Google Scholar
  40. Kirişçi, K., & Karaca, S. (2015). Hoşgörü ve Çelişkiler: 1989, 1991 ve 2011’de Türkiye’ye Yönelen Kitlesel Mülteci Akınları. In M. Erdoğan & A. Kaya (Eds.), Türkiye’nin Göç Tarihi: 14. Yüzyıldan 21. Yüzyıla Türkiye’ye Göçler (pp. 295–314). İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi.Google Scholar
  41. Klavert, H. (2011). African Union Frameworks for Migration: Current Issues and Questions for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 108. Brussels. Retrieved from
  42. Landau, L. (2005). Forced Migrants in the New Johannesburg: Towards a Local Government Response. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  43. Lu, M. (2009). The Politics of Immigration Policy Formation: A Comparative, Intersectional Analysis. Unpublished Dissertation. Indiana, Purdue University.Google Scholar
  44. Malkki, L. (1992). National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity Among Scholars and Refugees. Cultural Anthropology, 7(1), 24–44. Scholar
  45. Markos, K. (1997). The Treatment of Somali Refugees in Ethiopia Under Ethiopian and International Law. International Journal of Refugee Law, 9(3), 365–391. Scholar
  46. McMaster, D. (2006). Resettled Refugees: Temporary Protection Visas: Obstructing Refugee Livelihoods. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 25(2), 135–145. Scholar
  47. Milner, J. (2009). Refugees, the State and the Politics of Asylum in Africa. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Obi, B. N., & Crisp, J. (2002). UNHCR Policy on Refugees in Urban Areas: Report of a UNHCR/NGO Workshop. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  49. Organization of African Union. (1969). Convention on the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa.Google Scholar
  50. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat. (n.d.). About RMMS. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from
  51. Reuters. (2017). Mediterranean “by far world’s deadliest border” for migrants: IOM. Retrieved from:
  52. Rose, N. (1999). Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rutinwa, B. (2002). Prima Facia Status and Refugee Protection (Vol. 69). Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  54. Sassen, S. (1999). Guests and Aliens. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  55. Shimizu, H., & Sandler, T. (2002). Peacekeeping and Burden Sharing: 1994–2000. Journal of Peace Research, 39(6), 651–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. UN Economic and Social Council. (1992). Analytical Report of the Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons. Geneva: UN.Google Scholar
  57. UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2005). Local Integration and Self-Reliance, 2 June 2005, EC/55/SC/CRP.15, available at: Accessed 12 Nov 2018.
  58. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Fact Sheet No. 20, Human Rights and Refugees, July 1993, No. 20, available at: Accessed 12 Nov 2018.
  59. UNHCR. (1967). The 1951 Convention and Its 1967 Protocol. Geneva. Retrieved from:
  60. UNHCR. (2000). The State of the World’s Refugees: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. UNHCR. (2005). UNHCR Handbook for Self-Reliance. Retrieved from:
  62. UNHCR. (2010). Introductory Note to Geneva Convention (1951). Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  63. UNHCR. (2011). Promoting Livelihoods and Self-Reliance and Solutions in Urban Areas. Retrieved from:
  64. UNHCR ExCom. (2005). Report of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved from:
  65. Veney, C. (2007). Forced Migration in East Africa: Democratization, Structural Adjustment, and Refugees. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Whittaker, D. (2006). Asylum Seekers and Refugees in the Contemporary World. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wong, T. K. (2011). Immigration Control in the Age of Migration. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. University of California, Riverside, California, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dilek Karal
    • 1
  1. 1.Bir Dünya Çocuk DerneğiGaziantepTurkey

Personalised recommendations