Zone-Plate X-Ray Microscopy

Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


Fresnel zone plates are the most commonly used optic in x-ray microscopes. Following a short discussion of historical developments, the properties of zone plates are outlined, along with the microscope systems that employ them. A number of applications of x-ray microscopes are then surveyed, including in biology, environmental science, and materials science.

x-ray microscopy x-ray tomography Fresnel zone plates x-ray fluorescence trace element mapping cryo microscopy 



Naturally, an enterprise like writing this review depends greatly on the willingness of our colleagues around the x-ray microscopy community to provide us with advice, information, and images, and we thank the many people who have done that. We especially thank Graeme Morrison for helpful comments and technical assistance in the preparation of this updated version, and Janos Kirz and Henry Chapman for additional comments. We also thank our immediate colleagues at Argonne, Northwestern, and Berkeley for many helpful discussions. Work by MH and TW was supported by the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Work by CJ was supported by the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.


  1. P. Kirkpatrick: The x-ray microscope, Sci. Am. 180, 44–47 (1949)Google Scholar
  2. V.E. Cosslett, A. Engström, H.H. Pattee Jr. (Eds.): International Symposium on X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Microanalysis (Academic Press, New York 1957)Google Scholar
  3. A. Engström, V.E. Cosslett, H.H. Pattee Jr. (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1960)Google Scholar
  4. H.H. Pattee Jr., V.E. Cosslett, A. Engström (Eds.): X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Microanalysis (Academic Press, New York 1963)Google Scholar
  5. R. Castaing, P. Deschamps, J. Philibert: X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis (Hermann, Paris 1966)Google Scholar
  6. G. Möllenstedt, K.H. Gaukler: X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis (Springer, Berlin 1969)Google Scholar
  7. A.V. Baez: The early days of x-ray optics: A personal memoir, J. Xray Sci. Technol. 1, 3–6 (1989)Google Scholar
  8. A.V. Baez: Anecdotes about the early days of x-ray optics, J. Xray Sci. Technol. 7(2), 90–97 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. V.E. Cosslett, W.C. Nixon: X-Ray Microscopy (Cambridge Univ. Press, London 1960)Google Scholar
  10. D.F. Parsons (Ed.): Short wavelength microscopy, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 306 (NYAS, New York 1978)Google Scholar
  11. E.A. Ash (Ed.): Scanned Image Microscopy (Academic Press, London 1980)Google Scholar
  12. D.F. Parsons (Ed.): Ultrasoft X-Ray Microscopy: Its Application to Biological and Physical Sciences, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 342 (NYAS, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  13. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 43 (Springer, Berlin 1984)Google Scholar
  14. D. Sayre, M.R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy II, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 56 (Springer, Berlin 1988)Google Scholar
  15. A.G. Michette, G.R. Morrison, C.J. Buckley (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy III, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 67 (Springer, Berlin 1992)Google Scholar
  16. V.V. Aristov, A.I. Erko (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy IV (Bogorodskii Pechatnik, Chernogolovka 1994)Google Scholar
  17. J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, E. Umbach, D. Rudolph (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy (Springer, Berlin 1998)Google Scholar
  18. W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference (AIP, College Park 2000)Google Scholar
  19. J. Susini, D. Joyeux, F. Polack: 7th international conference on x-ray microscopy: Preface, J. Phys. IV 104, V (2003)Google Scholar
  20. S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, Y. Suzuki (Eds.): X-Ray Microscopy: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference, IPAP Conference Series, Vol. 7 (IPAP, Tokyo 2006)Google Scholar
  21. F. Pfeiffer, C. David, C. Quitmann (Eds.): 9th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, Vol. 186 (IOP, Bristol 2009)Google Scholar
  22. I. McNulty, C. Eyeberger, B. Lai (Eds.): The 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1365 (AIP, College Park 2011)Google Scholar
  23. H. Xu, Z. Wu, R. Tai: 11th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM2012), J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 463, 011001 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. M.D. de Jonge, D.J. Paterson, C.G. Ryan: Preface: The International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, AIP Conf. Proc. 1696, 010001 (2016)Google Scholar
  25. P. Guttmann, C. Bittencourt, S. Rehbein, P. Umek, X. Ke, G. Van Tendeloo, C.P. Ewels, G. Schneider: Nanoscale spectroscopy with polarized x-rays by NEXAFS-TXM, Nat. Photonics 6(1), 25–29 (2011)Google Scholar
  26. W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, E.H. Anderson: Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy, Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009)Google Scholar
  27. I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rösner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V.A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M.V. Holt, C. David: Interlaced zone plate optics for hard x-ray imaging in the 10 nm range, Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017)Google Scholar
  28. D.A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y.S. Meng, T. Warwick, L.L. Yang, H.A. Padmore: Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy, Nat. Photonics 8(10), 765–769 (2014)Google Scholar
  29. J.H. Hubbell, H.A. Gimm, I. Øverbø: Pair, triplet, and total atomic cross sections (and mass attenuation coefficients) for 1 MeV–100 GeV photons in elements Z=1–100, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 1023–1147 (1980)Google Scholar
  30. A. Einstein: Lassen sich Brechungsexponenten der Körper für Röntgenstrahlen experimentell ermitteln?, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 9(12), 86–87 (1918)Google Scholar
  31. B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis: X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at \(E\)=50–30,000 eV, \(Z\)=1–92, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993)Google Scholar
  32. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph: Proposal for a phase contrast x-ray microscope. In: X-Ray Microscopy: Instrumentation and Biological Applications, ed. by P.C. Cheng, G.J. Jan (Springer, Berlin 1987) pp. 231–238Google Scholar
  33. E.B. Saloman, J.H. Hubbell: Critical analysis of soft x-ray cross section data, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 255, 38–42 (1987)Google Scholar
  34. M.O. Krause: Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307–327 (1979)Google Scholar
  35. A. Engström: Quantitative micro- and histochemical elementary analysis by Röntgen absorption spectrography, Acta Radiol. 27(S63), 1–106 (1946)Google Scholar
  36. H. Wolter: Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen, Ann. Phys. 10(286), 94–114 (1952)Google Scholar
  37. H. Ade, J. Kirz, S.L. Hulbert, E. Johnson, E. Anderson, D. Kern: X-ray spectromicroscopy with a zone plate generated microprobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1841–1843 (1990)Google Scholar
  38. S. Günther, A. Kolmakov, J. Kovac, L. Casalis, L. Gregoratti, M. Marsi, M. Kiskinova: Scanning photoelectron microscopy of a bimetal/Si interface: Au coadsorbed on Ag/Si(111), Surf. Sci. 377, 145–149 (1997)Google Scholar
  39. T. Warwick, H. Ade, A.P. Hitchcock, H. Padmore, E.G. Rightor, B.P. Tonner: Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 85–98 (1997)Google Scholar
  40. C.-H. Ko, R. Klauser, D.-H. Wei, H.-H. Chan, T.J. Chuang: The soft x-ray scanning photoemission microscopy project at SRRC, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 299–304 (1998)Google Scholar
  41. B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, A. Beran, D. Eichert, I. Kreft, P. Pongrac, M. Regvar, K. Vogel-Mikuš, M. Kiskinova: Low-energy x-ray fluorescence microscopy opening new opportunities for bio-related research, J. R. Soc. Interface 6(5), S641–S647 (2009)Google Scholar
  42. A.P. Hitchcock, M. Obst, J. Wang, Y.S. Lu, T. Tyliszczak: Advances in the detection of As in environmental samples using low energy x-ray fluorescence in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope: Arsenic immobilization by an Fe(II)-oxidizing freshwater bacteria, Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 2821–2829 (2012)Google Scholar
  43. P. Horowitz, J.A. Howell: A scanning x-ray microscope using synchrotron radiation, Science 178, 608–611 (1972)Google Scholar
  44. C.J. Sparks Jr.: X-ray fluorescence microprobe for chemical analysis. In: Synchrotron Radiation Research, ed. by H. Winick, S. Doniach (Plenum, New York 1980) pp. 459–512Google Scholar
  45. J. Szlachetko, M. Cotte, J. Morse, M. Salomé, P. Jagodzinski, J.C. Dousse, J. Hoszowska, Y. Kayser, J. Susini: Wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for x-ray microfluorescence analysis at the x-ray microscopy beamline ID21 (ESRF), J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 400–408 (2010)Google Scholar
  46. R.M. Glaeser: Limitations to significant information in biological electron microscopy as a result of radiation damage, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 36, 466–482 (1971)Google Scholar
  47. D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D.M. Kim, E. Spiller: Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: Comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons, Ultramicroscopy 2, 337–341 (1977)Google Scholar
  48. A. Rose: Unified approach to performance of photographic film, television pickup tubes, and human eye, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. 47, 273–294 (1946)Google Scholar
  49. D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D.M. Kim, E. Spiller: Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological specimens, Science 196, 1339–1340 (1977)Google Scholar
  50. R. Grimm, M. Bärmann, W. Häckl, D. Typke, E. Sackman, W. Baumeister: Energy filtered electron tomography of ice-embedded actin and vesicles, Biophys. J. 72, 482–489 (1997)Google Scholar
  51. C. Jacobsen, R. Medenwaldt, S. Williams: A perspective on biological x-ray and electron microscopy. In: X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, ed. by J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, E. Umbach, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1998) pp. 93–102Google Scholar
  52. D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, B. Niemann: Amplitude and phase contrast in x-ray microscopy. In: Modern Microscopies, ed. by P.J. Duke, A.G. Michette (Plenum, New York 1990) pp. 59–67Google Scholar
  53. P. Gölz: Calculations on radiation dosages of biological materials in phase contrast and amplitude contrast x-ray microscopy. In: X-Ray Microscopy III, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 67, ed. by A.G. Michette, G.R. Morrison, C.J. Buckley (Springer, Berlin 1992) pp. 313–315Google Scholar
  54. G. Schneider: Cryo x-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast, Ultramicroscopy 75, 85–104 (1998)Google Scholar
  55. J. Kirz, D. Sayre, J. Dilger: Comparative analysis of x-ray emission microscopies for biological specimens. In: Short Wavelength Microscopy, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 306, ed. by D.F. Parsons (NYAS, New York 1978) pp. 291–305Google Scholar
  56. J. Kirz: Mapping the distribution of particular atomic species. In: Ultrasoft X-Ray Microscopy: Its Application to Biological and Physical Sciences, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 342, ed. by D.F. Parsons (NYAS, New York 1980) pp. 273–287Google Scholar
  57. J. Kirz: Specimen damage considerations in biological microprobe analysis. In: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vol. 2 (SEM Inc, Chicago 1980) pp. 239–249Google Scholar
  58. S. Aoki: Recent developments in x-ray microscopy at the photon factory. In: X-Ray Microscopy IV, ed. by V.V. Aristov, A.I. Erko (Bogorodskii Pechatnik, Chernogolovka 1994) pp. 35–40Google Scholar
  59. P. Kirkpatrick: X-ray images by refractive focusing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39(9), 796 (1949)Google Scholar
  60. H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi: Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-x-ray focusing, Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2010)Google Scholar
  61. M. Yabashi, K. Tono, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, K. Yamauchi, T. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, K. Tamasaku, H. Ohashi, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa: Optics for coherent x-ray applications, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 976–985 (2014)Google Scholar
  62. E. Spiller: Low-loss reflection coatings using absorbing materials, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 365–367 (1972)Google Scholar
  63. B.X. Yang: Fresnel and refractive lenses for x-rays, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578–587 (1993)Google Scholar
  64. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler: A compound refractive lens for focusing high energy x-rays, Nature 384, 49–51 (1996)Google Scholar
  65. B. Lengeler, C.G. Schroer, B. Benner, A. Gerhardus, T.F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Meyer, C. Zimprich: Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9, 119–124 (2002)Google Scholar
  66. C.G. Schroer, B. Lengeler: Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 54802 (2005)Google Scholar
  67. A.V. Baez: A self-supporting metal Fresnel zone-plate to focus extreme ultra-violet and soft x-rays, Nature 186, 958 (1960)Google Scholar
  68. A.G. Michette: Optical Systems for Soft X Rays (Plenum, New York 1986)Google Scholar
  69. D. Attwood: Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1999)Google Scholar
  70. M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, O. Bunk: X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution, Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014)Google Scholar
  71. J. Thieme: Theoretical investigations of imaging properties of zone plates and zone plate systems using diffraction theory. In: X-Ray Microscopy II, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 56, ed. by D. Sayre, M.R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback (Springer, Berlin 1988) pp. 70–79Google Scholar
  72. K. Kamiya: Theory of Fresnel zone plate, Sci. Light 12(3), 35–49 (1963)Google Scholar
  73. M. Born, E. Wolf: Principles of Optics, 7th edn. (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1999)Google Scholar
  74. M.J. Simpson, A.G. Michette: The effects of manufacturing inaccuracies on the imaging properties of Fresnel zone plates, Opt. Acta 30, 1455–1462 (1983)Google Scholar
  75. J.W. Strutt: Wave theory of light. In: Scientific Papers by John William Strutt, Baron Rayleigh, Vol. 3 (Dover, New York 1888) pp. 47–187Google Scholar
  76. R.W. Wood: Phase-reversal zone-plates, and diffraction telescopes, Philos. Mag. 45(277), 511–522 (1898)Google Scholar
  77. J. Kirz: Phase zone plates for X rays and the extreme UV, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 301–309 (1974)Google Scholar
  78. E.H. Anderson, D.L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W.L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, D. Attwood: Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000)Google Scholar
  79. D. Tennant, S. Spector, A. Stein, C. Jacobsen: Electron beam lithography of Fresnel zone plates using a rectilinear machine and trilayer resists. In: Xray Microsc. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf., ed. by W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (AIP, College Park 2000) pp. 601–606Google Scholar
  80. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph: Lichtstarke Zonenplatten als abbildende Systeme für weiche Röntgenstrahlung (High power zone plates as image forming systems for soft x-rays), Optik 29, 577–585 (1969)Google Scholar
  81. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann, O. Christ: Zone plate lenses for x-ray microscopy. In: X-Ray Microscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 43, ed. by G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1984) pp. 63–74Google Scholar
  82. D. Sayre: Proposal for the utilization of electron beam technology in the fabrication of an image forming device for the soft x-ray region, Technical Report RC 3974 (#17965) (IBM T. J. Watson Research Laboratory, Yorktown Heights 1972)Google Scholar
  83. D.C. Shaver, D.C. Flanders, N.M. Ceglio, H.I. Smith: X-ray zone plates fabricated using electron-beam and x-ray lithography, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 1626–1630 (1980)Google Scholar
  84. D. Kern, P. Coane, R. Acosta, T.H.P. Chang, R. Feder, P. Houzego, W. Molzen, J. Powers, A. Speth, R. Viswanathan, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, J. Kenney: Electron beam fabrication and characterization of Fresnel zone plates for soft x-ray microscopy, Proc. SPIE 447, 204–213 (1984)Google Scholar
  85. C.J. Buckley, M.T. Browne, P.S. Charalambous: Contamination lithography for the fabrication of zone plate x-ray lenses, Proc. SPIE 537, 213–217 (1985)Google Scholar
  86. D.M. Tennant, L.D. Jackel, R.E. Howard, E.L. Hu, P. Grabbe, R.J. Capik, B.S. Schneider: Twenty-five nm features patterned with trilevel e-beam resist, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(4), 1304–1307 (1981)Google Scholar
  87. G. Schneider, T. Schliebe, H. Aschoff: Cross-linked polymers for nanofabrication of high-resolution zone plates in nickel and germanium, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 2809–2812 (1995)Google Scholar
  88. D.M. Tennant, J.E. Gregus, C. Jacobsen, E.L. Raab: Construction and test of phase zone plates for x-ray microscopy, Opt. Lett. 16, 621–623 (1991)Google Scholar
  89. C. David, B. Kaulich, R. Medenwaldt, M. Hettwer, N. Fay, M. Diehl, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl: Low-distortion electron-beam lithography for fabrication of high-resolution germanium and tantalum phase zone plates, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 2762–2766 (1995)Google Scholar
  90. W. Chao, B.D. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, E.H. Anderson, D.T. Attwood: Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm, Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005)Google Scholar
  91. S. Spector, C. Jacobsen, D. Tennant: Process optimization for production of sub-20 nm soft x-ray zone plates, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(6), 2872–2876 (1997)Google Scholar
  92. M. Peuker: High-efficiency nickel phase zone plates with 20 nm minimum outermost zone width, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2208–2210 (2001)Google Scholar
  93. S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider: Three-dimensional structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale x-ray imaging with high efficiency, Nano Res. 7(4), 1–8 (2014)Google Scholar
  94. E.H. Anderson, V. Boegli, L.P. Muray: Electron beam lithography digital pattern generator and electronics for generalized curvilinear structures, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2529–2534 (1995)Google Scholar
  95. W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa: Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution, Opt. Express 20(9), 9777 (2012)Google Scholar
  96. W. Chao, E.H. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C.Y. Song, D.T. Attwood: 20-nm resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures, Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2019–2021 (2003)Google Scholar
  97. M. Hettwer, D. Rudolph: Fabrication of the x-ray condenser zone plate KZP 7. In: X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, ed. by J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, E. Umbach, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1998) pp. 313–318Google Scholar
  98. S. Vogt, H.N. Chapman, C. Jacobsen, R. Medenwaldt: Dark field x-ray microscopy: the effects of condenser/detector aperture, Ultramicroscopy 87, 25–44 (2001)Google Scholar
  99. M. Howells: Design of X-Ray-Heated Beamline Windows, Technical Report LSBL-0168 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1992) revised (2004)Google Scholar
  100. M.R. Howells, P. Charalambous, H. He, S. Marchesini, J.C.H. Spence: An off-axis zone-plate monochromator for high-power undulator radiation, Proc. SPIE 4783, 65–73 (2002)Google Scholar
  101. A.H. Compton: The total reflexion of x-rays, Philos. Mag. 45(270), 1121–1131 (1923)Google Scholar
  102. D.H. Bilderback: Review of capillary x-ray optics from the 2nd International Capillary Optics Meeting, Xray Spectrom. 32(3), 195–207 (2003)Google Scholar
  103. X. Zeng, F. Duewer, M. Feser, C. Huang, A. Lyon, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun: Ellipsoidal and parabolic glass capillaries as condensers for x-ray microscopes, Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2376–2381 (2008)Google Scholar
  104. G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, K.S. Liang, F.W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, H.-P.D. Shieh: 30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006)Google Scholar
  105. G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J.B. Heymann, W.G. Müller, J.G. McNally: Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by x-ray microscopy, Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010)Google Scholar
  106. A. Tkachuk, F. Duewer, H. Cui, M. Feser, S. Wang, W. Yun: X-ray computed tomography in Zernike phase contrast mode at 8 keV with 50-nm resolution using Cu rotating anode x-ray source, Z. Kristallogr. 222, 650–655 (2007)Google Scholar
  107. R. Tatchyn, P.L. Csonka, I. Lindau: The constant-thickness zone plate as a variational problem, Opt. Acta 31, 729–733 (1984)Google Scholar
  108. E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett: High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV x-rays, Nature 401, 895–898 (1999)Google Scholar
  109. C. Jacobsen: Making soft x-ray microscopy harder: Considerations for sub-0.1 $$\upmu$$m resolution imaging at $$\sim 4$$ Å wavelengths. In: X-Ray Microscopy III, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 67, ed. by A.G. Michette, G.R. Morrison, C.J. Buckley (Springer, Berlin 1992) pp. 274–277Google Scholar
  110. Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, W. Yun: Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2004–2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  111. B. Lai, W.B. Yun, D. Legnini, Y. Xiao, J. Chrzas, P.J. Viccaro, V. White, S. Bajikar, D. Denton, F. Cerrina, E. Di Fabrizio, M. Gentili, L. Grella, M. Baciocchi: Hard x-ray phase zone plate fabricated by lithographic techniques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1877–1879 (1992)Google Scholar
  112. A.A. Krasnoperova, J. Xiao, F. Cerrina, E. Di Fabrizio, L. Luciani, M. Figliomeni, M. Gentili, W. Yun, B. Lai, E. Gluskin: Fabrication of hard x-ray phase zone plate by x-ray lithography, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2588–2591 (1993)Google Scholar
  113. S.D. Shastri, J.M. Maser, B. Lai, J. Tys: Microfocusing of 50 keV undulator radiation with two stacked zoneplates, Opt. Commun. 197, 9–14 (2001)Google Scholar
  114. S.-C. Gleber, M. Wojcik, J. Liu, C. Roehrig, M. Cummings, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Li, B. Lai, D. Shu, S. Vogt: Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard x-ray regime, Opt. Express 22(23), 28142–28153 (2014)Google Scholar
  115. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann: Imaging and scanning soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates. In: Scanned Image Microscopy, ed. by E.A. Ash (Academic Press, London 1980) pp. 393–412Google Scholar
  116. R.M. Bionta, K.M. Skulina, J. Weinberg: Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(8), 945–947 (1994)Google Scholar
  117. S. Tamura, M. Yasumoto, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, M. Awaji, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, Y. Terada, H. Takano: New approaches to fabrication of multilayer Fresnel zone plate for high-energy synchrotron radiation x-rays, Vacuum 80, 823–827 (2006)Google Scholar
  118. F. Döring, A.L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, H.U. Krebs: Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate, Opt. Express 21(16), 19311 (2013)Google Scholar
  119. B.W. Batterman, H. Cole: Dynamical diffraction of x rays by perfect crystals, Rev. Modern Phys. 36(3), 681 (1964)Google Scholar
  120. H. Kogelnik: Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969)Google Scholar
  121. L. Solymar, D.J. Cooke: Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic Press, Cambridge 1981)Google Scholar
  122. J. Maser, G. Schmahl: Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios, Opt. Commun. 89, 355–362 (1992)Google Scholar
  123. G. Schneider, S. Rehbein, S. Werner: Volume effects in zone plates. In: Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics, ed. by A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, A.G. Michette (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2008) pp. 137–171Google Scholar
  124. J.M. Cowley, A.F. Moodie: The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. I. A new theoretical approach, Acta Crystallogr. 10(10), 609–619 (1957)Google Scholar
  125. K. Li, M. Wojcik, C. Jacobsen: Multislice does it all—Calculating the performance of nanofocusing x-ray optics, Opt. Express 25(3), 1831–1846 (2017)Google Scholar
  126. G. Schneider, J. Maser: Zone plates as imaging optics in high diffraction orders described by coupled wave theory. In: X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, ed. by J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, E. Umbach, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1998) pp. IV-71–IV-76Google Scholar
  127. D. Hambach, G. Schneider, E. Gullikson: Efficient high-order diffraction of extreme-ultraviolet light and soft x-rays by nanostructured volume gratings, Opt. Lett. 26(15), 1200–1202 (2001)Google Scholar
  128. H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, H.N. Chapman: High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151109 (2005)Google Scholar
  129. J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H.C. Kang, C. Liu, R. Conley: Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics, Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004)Google Scholar
  130. X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I.K. Robinson, Y.S. Chu: 11 nm hard x-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens, Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013)Google Scholar
  131. B. Winn, H. Ade, C. Buckley, M. Feser, M. Howells, S. Hulbert, C. Jacobsen, K. Kaznacheyev, J. Kirz, A. Osanna, J. Maser, I. McNulty, J. Miao, T. Oversluizen, S. Spector, B. Sullivan, S. Wang, S. Wirick, H. Zhang: Illumination for coherent soft x-ray applications: The new X1A beamline at the NSLS, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 395–404 (2000)Google Scholar
  132. B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: Soft x-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications, Opt. Commun. 12(2), 160–163 (1974)Google Scholar
  133. D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, G. Schmahl, O. Christ: The Göttingen x-ray microscope and x-ray microscopy experiments at the BESSY storage ring. In: X-Ray Microscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 43, ed. by G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1984) pp. 192–202Google Scholar
  134. W. Meyer-Ilse, G.P. Denbeaux, L.E. Johnson, W. Bates, A. Lucero, E.H. Anderson: The high resolution x-ray microscope XM-1. In: Xray Microsc. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf., ed. by W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (American Institute of Physics, College Park 2000) pp. 129–134Google Scholar
  135. B. Niemann: High numerical-aperture x-ray condensers for transmission x-ray microscopes. In: X-ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, ed. by J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, E. Umbach, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1998) pp. 337–347Google Scholar
  136. S. Oestreich, G. Rostaing, B. Niemann, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barret: Dynamical coherent illumination for x-ray microscopy at 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources: First results with x-rays at the Ca-K edge (4 keV). In: Xray Microsc. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf., ed. by W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (American Institute of Physics, College Park 2000) pp. 464–467Google Scholar
  137. F. Zernike: Phase contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part I, Physica 9, 686–698 (1942)Google Scholar
  138. U. Neuhäusler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M.A. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach: X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast mode at 4 keV photon energy with 60 nm resolution, J. Phys. D 36, A79–A82 (2003)Google Scholar
  139. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttmann: Phase contrast x-ray microscopy—Experiments at the BESSY storage ring. In: X-Ray Microscopy II, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 56, ed. by D. Sayre, M.R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback (Springer, Berlin 1988) pp. 228–232Google Scholar
  140. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann: Phase contrast x-ray microscopy studies, Optik 97, 181–182 (1994)Google Scholar
  141. H. Rarback, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, X.S. Xie: Scanning x-ray microscopy—First tests with synchrotron radiation. In: Scanned Image Microscopy, ed. by E.A. Ash (Academic Press, London 1980) pp. 449–456Google Scholar
  142. H. Rarback, J.M. Kenney, J. Kirz, M.R. Howells, P. Chang, P.J. Coane, R. Feder, P.J. Houzego, D.P. Kern, D. Sayre: Recent results from the Stony Brook scanning microscope. In: X-Ray Microscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 43, ed. by G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph (Springer, Berlin 1984) pp. 203–215Google Scholar
  143. B. Niemann: The Göttingen scanning x-ray microscope, Proc. SPIE 733, 422–427 (1987)Google Scholar
  144. G.R. Morrison, M.T. Borwne, C.J. Buckley, R.E. Burge, R.C. Cave, P. Charalambous, P.J. Duke, A.R. Hare, C.P.B. Hills, J.M. Kenney, A.G. Michette, K. Ogawa, A.M. Rogoyski, T. Taguchi: Early experience with the King's College--Daresbury x-ray microscope. In: X-Ray Microscopy II, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 56, ed. by D. Sayre, M.R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback (Springer, Berlin 1988) pp. 201–208Google Scholar
  145. H. Rarback, D. Shu, S.C. Feng, H. Ade, J. Kirz, I. McNulty, D.P. Kern, T.H.P. Chang, Y. Vladimirsky, N. Iskander, D. Attwood, K. McQuaid, S. Rothman: Scanning x-ray microscope with 75-nm resolution, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 52–59 (1988)Google Scholar
  146. J.M. Kenney, G.R. Morrison, M.T. Browne, C.J. Buckley, R.E. Burge, R.C. Cave, P.S. Charalambous, P.D. Duke, A.R. Hare, C.P.B. Hills, A.G. Michette, K. Ogawa, A.M. Rogoyski: Evaluation of a scanning transmission x-ray microscope using undulator radiation at the SERC Daresbury Laboratory, J. Phys. E 22, 234–238 (1989)Google Scholar
  147. A.L.D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W.F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E.G. Rightor, G.E. Mitchell, A.P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, H. Ade: Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 125–136 (2003)Google Scholar
  148. C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M.T. Browne, C.J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang: Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope, Opt. Commun. 86, 351–364 (1991)Google Scholar
  149. M. Feser, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Wirick, A. Stein, T. Schäfer: Scanning transmission soft x-ray microscopy at beamline X-1A at the NSLS—Advances in instrumentation and selected applications, Proc. SPIE 4506, 146–153 (2001)Google Scholar
  150. T. Beetz, M. Feser, H. Fleckenstein, B. Hornberger, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, M. Lerotic, E. Lima, M. Lu, D. Sayre, D. Shapiro, A. Stein, D. Tennant, S. Wirick: Soft x-ray microscopy at the NSLS, Synchrotron Radiat. News 16(3), 11–15 (2003)Google Scholar
  151. A. Stein, C. Jacobsen, K. Evans-Lutterodt, D.M. Tennant, G. Bogart, F. Klemens, L.E. Ocola, B.J. Choi, S.V. Sreenivasan: Diffractive x-ray optics using production fabrication methods, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 214–219 (2003)Google Scholar
  152. M. Lu, D.M. Tennant, C.J. Jacobsen: Orientation dependence of linewidth variation in sub-50-nm Gaussian e-beam lithography and its correction, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(6), 2881–2885 (2006)Google Scholar
  153. J.M. Kenney, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, W. Thomlinson, R. Rosser, G. Schidlovsky: Absorption microanalysis with a scanning soft x-ray microscope: Mapping the distribution of calcium in bone, J. Microsc. 138(3), 321–328 (1985)Google Scholar
  154. D. Shu, D.P. Siddons, H. Rarback, J. Kirz: Two-dimensional laser interferometric encoder for the soft x-ray scanning microscope at the NSLS, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 266, 313–317 (1988)Google Scholar
  155. P. Guttmann, B. Niemann: A detector system for high photon rates for a scanning x-ray microscope. In: X-Ray Microscopy II, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 56, ed. by D. Sayre, M.R. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback (Springer, Berlin 1988) pp. 154–159Google Scholar
  156. M. Feser, M. Carlucci-Dayton, C.J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, U. Neuhäusler, G. Smith, B. Yu: Applications and instrumentation advances with the Stony Brook scanning transmission x-ray microscope, Proc. SPIE 3449, 19–29 (1998)Google Scholar
  157. J. Maser, A. Osanna, Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Spector, B. Winn, D. Tennant: Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo STXM: I. Instrumentation, imaging, and spectroscopy, J. Microsc. 197(1), 68–79 (2000)Google Scholar
  158. R. Barrett, B. Kaulich, S. Oestreich, J. Susini: Scanning microscopy end station at the ESRF x-ray microscopy beamline, Proc. SPIE 3449, 80–90 (1998)Google Scholar
  159. U. Wiesemann, J. Thieme, R. Früke, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: Construction of a scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the undulator U-41 at BESSY II, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 861–863 (2001)Google Scholar
  160. M. Feser, C. Jacobsen, P. Rehak, G. DeGeronimo, P. Holl, L. Strüder: Novel integrating solid state detector with segmentation for scanning transmission soft x-ray microscopy, Proc. SPIE 4499, 117–125 (2001)Google Scholar
  161. P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: Instrumentation advances with the new x-ray microscopes at BESSY II, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 849–852 (2001)Google Scholar
  162. M. Feser, C. Jacobsen, P. Rehak, G. DeGeronimo: Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a segmented detector, J. Phys. IV 104, 529–534 (2003)Google Scholar
  163. W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, M. Koike: The x-ray microscopy resource center at the Advanced Light Source. In: Synchrotron Radiation in the Biociences, ed. by B. Chance, D. Deisenhober, S. Ebashi, D.T. Goodhead, J.R. Helliwell, H.E. Huxley, T. Iizuka, J. Kirz, T. Mitsui, E. Rubenstein, N. Sakabe, T. Sasaki, G. Schmahl, H. Sturhmann, K. Wüthrich, G. Zaccai (Clarendon, Oxford 1994) pp. 624–636Google Scholar
  164. G.R. Morrison: X-ray imaging with a configured detector. In: X-Ray Microscopy IV, ed. by V.V. Aristov, A.I. Erko (Bogorodskii Pechatnik, Chernogolovka 1994) pp. 478–486Google Scholar
  165. G. Morrison, W.J. Eaton, R. Barnett, P. Charalambous: STXM imaging with a configured detector, J. Phys. IV 104, 547–550 (2003)Google Scholar
  166. M. Feser, B. Hornberger, C. Jacobsen, G. De Geronimo, P. Rehak, P. Holl, L. Strüder: Integrating silicon detector with segmentation for scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 565, 841–854 (2006)Google Scholar
  167. B. Hornberger, M.D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Holzner, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, P. Rehak, L. Strüder, S. Vogt: Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(4), 355–362 (2008)Google Scholar
  168. B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, B. Fayard, J. Susini: Differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy with twin zone plates, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 797–806 (2002)Google Scholar
  169. F. Polack, D. Joyeux, M. Feser, D. Phalippou, M. Carlucci-Dayton, K. Kaznacheyev, C. Jacobsen: Demonstration of phase contrast in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy: Comparison of images obtained at NSLS X1-A with numerical simulations. In: Xray Microsc. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf., ed. by W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (American Institute of Physics, College Park 2000) pp. 573–580Google Scholar
  170. C. Holzner, M. Feser, S. Vogt, B. Hornberger, S.B. Baines, C. Jacobsen: Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with x-rays, Nat. Phys. 6, 883–887 (2010)Google Scholar
  171. H.N. Chapman: Phase-retrieval x-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution, Ultramicroscopy 66, 153–172 (1996)Google Scholar
  172. H.N. Chapman: Phase-retrieval x-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution: Signal processing, Scanning Microsc. 11, 67–80 (1997)Google Scholar
  173. W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Wilhein, P. Guttmann: Thinned back-illuminated CCD for x-ray microscopy, Proc. SPIE 1900, 241–245 (1993)Google Scholar
  174. C. Broennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, A. Wagner: The PILATUS 1M detector, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120–130 (2006)Google Scholar
  175. S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S.-C. Gleber, D.J. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, S. Vogt: The Bionanoprobe: Hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 66–75 (2014)Google Scholar
  176. J. Deng, D.J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y.S.G. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen: X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning, Sci. Rep. 7(1), 445 (2017)Google Scholar
  177. W. Hoppe: Beugung im Inhomogenen Primärstrahlwellenfeld. I. Prinzip einer Phasenmessung, Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969)Google Scholar
  178. R.W. Gerchberg, W.O. Saxton: Phase determination from image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope, Optik 34(3), 275–284 (1971)Google Scholar
  179. J.R. Fienup: Reconstruction of an object from the modulus of its Fourier transform, Opt. Lett. 3(1), 27–29 (1978)Google Scholar
  180. H.M.L. Faulkner, J. Rodenburg: Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004)Google Scholar
  181. J.M. Rodenburg, H.M.L. Faulkner: A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004)Google Scholar
  182. J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, I. Johnson: Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007)Google Scholar
  183. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, F. Pfeiffer: High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy, Science 321, 379–382 (2008)Google Scholar
  184. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, C.M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer: Contrast mechanisms in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043813 (2009)Google Scholar
  185. A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, C.G. Schroer: Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012)Google Scholar
  186. J. Deng, D.J. Vine, S. Chen, Y.S.G. Nashed, Q. Jin, N.W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C.J. Jacobsen: Simultaneous cryo x-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(8), 2314–2319 (2015)Google Scholar
  187. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, F. Pfeiffer: Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging, Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009)Google Scholar
  188. D.J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S.B. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A.G. Peele, K.A. Nugent: Simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana, Opt. Express 20(16), 18287–18296 (2012)Google Scholar
  189. P. Thibault, A. Menzel: Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements, Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013)Google Scholar
  190. J.N. Clark, X. Huang, R.J. Harder, I.K. Robinson: A continuous scanning mode for ptychography, Opt. Lett. 39(20), 6066–6069 (2014)Google Scholar
  191. P.M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, A. Menzel: On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014)Google Scholar
  192. J. Deng, Y.S.G. Nashed, S. Chen, N.W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, D.J. Vine: Continuous motion scan ptychography: Characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging, Opt. Express 23(5), 5438–5451 (2015)Google Scholar
  193. W. Yun, S.T. Pratt, R.M. Miller, Z. Cai, D.B. Hunter, A.G. Jarstfer, K.M. Kemner, B.P. Lai, H.-R. Lee, D.G. Legnini, W. Rodrigues, C.I. Smith: X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy of plants and fungi, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(6), 1390–1395 (1998)Google Scholar
  194. Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, H. Takano: Diffraction-limited microbeam with Fresnel zone plate optics in hard x-ray regions, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1508–1510 (2001)Google Scholar
  195. R. Rebonato, G.E. Ice, A. Habenschuss, J.C. Bilello: High-resolution microdiffraction study of notch-tip deformation in Mo single crystals using x-ray synchrotron radiation, Philos. Mag. A 60(5), 571–583 (1989)Google Scholar
  196. Z.H. Cai, W. Rodrigues, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, B.P. Lai, W. Yun, E.D. Isaacs, K.E. Lutterodt, J. Grenko, R. Glew, S. Sputz, J. Vandenberg, R. People, M.A. Alam, M. Hybertsen, L.J.P. Ketelsen: Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction diagnostics of multilayer optoelectronic devices, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 100–102 (1999)Google Scholar
  197. Y.A. Soh, P.G. Evans, Z. Cai, B.P. Lai, C.Y. Kim, G. Aeppli, N.D. Mathur, M.G. Blamire, E.D. Isaacs: Local mapping of strain at grain boundaries in colossal magnetoresistive films using x-ray microdiffraction, J. Appl. Phys. 91(10), 7742–7743 (2002)Google Scholar
  198. B.C. Larson, W. Yang, G.E. Ice, J.D. Budai, J.Z. Tischler: Three-dimensional x-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution, Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002)Google Scholar
  199. H.H. Hopkins: Applications of coherence theory in microscopy and interferometry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47(6), 508–526 (1957)Google Scholar
  200. B.J. Thompson: Image formation with partially coherent light, Prog. Opt. 7, 169–230 (1969)Google Scholar
  201. T. Wilson, C. Sheppard: Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic Press, Cambridge 1984)Google Scholar
  202. J.W. Goodman: Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York 1985)Google Scholar
  203. J.W. Goodman: Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd edn. (Roberts & Company, Greenwood Village 2005)Google Scholar
  204. C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams: Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes, Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992)Google Scholar
  205. L. Jochum, W. Meyer-Ilse: Partially coherent image formation with x-ray microscopes, Appl. Opt. 34(22), 4944–4950 (1995)Google Scholar
  206. J.M. Heck, D.T. Attwood, W. Meyer-Ilse: Resolution determination in x-ray microscopy: An analysis of the effects of partial coherence and illumination spectrum, J. Xray Sci. Technol. 8(2), 95–104 (1998)Google Scholar
  207. J. Otón, E. Pereiro, A.J. Pérez-Berná, L. Millach, C.O.S. Sorzano, R. Marabini, J.M. Carazo: Characterization of transfer function, resolution and depth of field of a soft x-ray microscope applied to tomography enhancement by Wiener deconvolution, Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5092–5103 (2016)Google Scholar
  208. H.N. Chapman, C. Jacobsen, S. Williams: A characterisation of dark-field imaging of colloidal gold labels in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope, Ultramicroscopy 62, 191–213 (1996)Google Scholar
  209. H.N. Chapman, C. Jacobsen, S. Williams: Applications of a CCD detector in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(2), 1332–1334 (1995)Google Scholar
  210. E.C. Kintner: Method for the calculation of partially coherent imagery, Appl. Opt. 17(17), 2747–2747 (1978)Google Scholar
  211. B.E.A. Saleh: Optical bilinear transformations: General properties, Opt. Acta 26(6), 777–799 (1979)Google Scholar
  212. C.J.R. Sheppard, T. Wilson: Fourier imaging of phase information in scanning and conventional optical microscopes, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 295(1415), 513–536 (1980)Google Scholar
  213. P.K. Mondal, S. Slansky: Influence de la position de l'anneau de phase sur le contraste de l'image dans un objectif à contraste dephase, Appl. Opt. 9(8), 1879–1882 (1970)Google Scholar
  214. G.R. Morrison: Some aspects of quantitative x-ray microscopy, Proc. SPIE 1140, 41–49 (1989)Google Scholar
  215. E. Zeitler, M.G.R. Thomson: Scanning transmission electron microscopy. I, Optik 31(3), 258–280 (1970)Google Scholar
  216. E. Zeitler, M.G.R. Thomson: Scanning transmission electron microscopy. II, Optik 31(4), 359–366 (1970)Google Scholar
  217. C.J.R. Sheppard, T. Wilson: Reciprocity and equivalence in scanning microscopes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(5), 755–756 (1986)Google Scholar
  218. T. Wilson, C.J.R. Sheppard: The halo effect of image processing by spatial frequency filtering, Optik 59(1), 19–23 (2003)Google Scholar
  219. L.C. Martin: The Theory of the Microscope (Elsevier, New York 1966)Google Scholar
  220. S. Aoki, S. Kikuta: X-ray holographic microscopy, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385–1392 (1974)Google Scholar
  221. C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, S. Rothman: X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresists, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847–1861 (1990)Google Scholar
  222. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, D. Kern, M. Howells: High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform x-ray holography, Science 256, 1009–1012 (1992)Google Scholar
  223. S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W.F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stöhr: Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography, Nature 432, 885–888 (2004)Google Scholar
  224. P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J.P. Guigay, M. Schlenker: Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2912–2914 (1999)Google Scholar
  225. W.S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J.E. Trebes, E.H. Anderson, R.A. Levesque, L. Yang: Ultra high resolution x-ray tomography, Science 266, 1213–1215 (1994)Google Scholar
  226. J. Lehr: 3D x-ray microscopy: Tomographic imaging of mineral sheaths of bacteria Leptothrix ochracea with the Göttingen x-ray microscope at BESSY, Optik 104(4), 166–170 (1997)Google Scholar
  227. A. Faridani, E.L. Ritman, K.T. Smith: Local tomography, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 52(2), 459–484 (1992)Google Scholar
  228. Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maser, A. Osanna: Soft x-ray microscopy with a cryo STXM: II. Tomography, J. Microsc. 197(1), 80–93 (2000)Google Scholar
  229. D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images, Ultramicroscopy 84(3–4), 185–197 (2000)Google Scholar
  230. G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knöchel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, C. Larabell: Computed tomography of cryogenic cells, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9(1), 177–183 (2002)Google Scholar
  231. L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 36, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin 1993)Google Scholar
  232. D.A. Agard, J.W. Sedat: Three-dimensional architecture of a polytene nucleus, Nature 302(5910), 676–681 (1983)Google Scholar
  233. W.A. Carrington, R.M. Lynch, E.D. Moore, G. Isenberg, K.E. Fogarty, F.S. Fay: Superresolution three-dimensional images of fluorescence in cells with minimal light exposure, Science 268(5216), 1483–1487 (1995)Google Scholar
  234. M. Selin, E. Fogelqvist, S. Werner, H.M. Hertz: Tomographic reconstruction in soft x-ray microscopy using focus-stack back-projection, Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2201–2204 (2015)Google Scholar
  235. S. Wang, F. Duewer, S. Kamath, C. Kelly, A. Lyon, K. Nill, P. Pombo, D. Scott, D. Trapp, W. Yun, S. Neogi, M. Kuhn, C. Bennet, P. Coon, S. Yan: A transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) for non-destructive 3D imaging of ICs at sub-100 nm resolution. In: Proc. 28th Int. Symp. Test. Fail. Anal., ed. by C. Boit (ASM International, Materials Park 2002) pp. 227–233Google Scholar
  236. G.-C. Yin, M.-T. Tang, Y.-F. Song, F.-R. Chen, K.S. Liang, F.W. Duewer, W. Yun, C.-H. Ko, H.-P.D. Shieh: Energy-tunable transmission x-ray microscope for differential contrast imaging with near 60 nm resolution tomography, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241115 (2006)Google Scholar
  237. J. Stöhr: NEXAFS Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Surface Sciences, Vol. 25, 1st edn. (Springer, Berlin 1992)Google Scholar
  238. C. Jeanguillaume, C. Colliex: Spectrum-image: The next step in EELS digital acquisition and processing, Ultramicroscopy 28, 252–257 (1989)Google Scholar
  239. J.A. Hunt, D.B. Williams: Electron energy-loss spectrum-imaging, Ultramicroscopy 38, 47–73 (1991)Google Scholar
  240. P.L. King, R. Browning, P. Pianetta, I. Lindau, M. Keenlyside, G. Knapp: Image-processing of multispectral x-ray photoelectron-spectroscopy images, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7(6), 3301–3304 (1989)Google Scholar
  241. G.R. Harp, Z.-L. Han, B.P. Tonner: Spatially-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of silicon in thin silicon-oxide films, Phys. Scr. 31, 23–27 (2007)Google Scholar
  242. H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, S. Williams: Chemical contrast in x-ray microscopy and spatially resolved XANES spectroscopy of organic specimens, Science 258, 972–975 (1992)Google Scholar
  243. C. Jacobsen, G. Flynn, S. Wirick, C. Zimba: Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution, J. Microsc. 197(2), 173–184 (2000)Google Scholar
  244. O.L. Krivanek, T.C. Lovejoy, N. Dellby, T. Aoki, R.W. Carpenter, P. Rez, E. Soignard, J. Zhu, P.E. Batson, M.J. Lagos, R.F. Egerton, P.A. Crozier: Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope, Nature 514(7521), 209–212 (2014)Google Scholar
  245. M. Isaacson, M. Utlaut: A comparison of electron and photon beams for determining micro-chemical environment, Optik 50(3), 213–234 (1978)Google Scholar
  246. E.G. Rightor, A.P. Hitchcock, H. Ade, R.D. Leapman, S.G. Urquhart, A.P. Smith, G. Mitchell, D. Fischer, H.J. Shin, T. Warwick: Spectromicroscopy of poly(ethylene terephthalate): Comparison of spectra and radiation damage rates in x-ray absorption and electron energy loss, J. Phys. Chem. B 101(11), 1950–1960 (1997)Google Scholar
  247. N. Bonnet, E. Simova, S. Lebonvallet, H. Kaplan: New applications of multivariate statistical analysis in spectroscopy and microscopy, Ultramicroscopy 40, 1–11 (1992)Google Scholar
  248. M. Lerotic, C. Jacobsen, T. Schäfer, S. Vogt: Cluster analysis of soft x-ray spectromicroscopy data, Ultramicroscopy 100(1/2), 35–57 (2004)Google Scholar
  249. O. Dhez, H. Ade, S.G. Urquhart: Calibrated NEXAFS spectra of some common polymers, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 128(1), 85–96 (2003)Google Scholar
  250. K. Kaznacheyev, A. Osanna, C. Jacobsen, O. Plashkevych, O. Vahtras, H. Ågren, V. Carravetta, A.P. Hitchcock: Innershell absorption spectroscopy of amino acids, J. Phys. Chem. A 106(13), 3153–3168 (2002)Google Scholar
  251. X. Zhang, R. Balhorn, J. Mazrimas, J. Kirz: Mapping and measuring DNA to protein ratios in mammalian sperm head by XANES imaging, J. Struct. Biol. 116, 335–344 (1996)Google Scholar
  252. I.N. Koprinarov, A.P. Hitchcock, C.T. McCrory, R.F. Childs: Quantitative mapping of structured polymeric systems using singular value decomposition analysis of soft x-ray images, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5358–5364 (2002)Google Scholar
  253. E.R. Malinowski: Factor Analysis in Chemistry, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York 1991)Google Scholar
  254. A. Osanna, C. Jacobsen: Principle component analysis for soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. In: Xray Microsc. Proc. Sixth Int. Conf., ed. by W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood (American Institute of Physics, College Park 2000) pp. 350–357Google Scholar
  255. B.S. Everitt, S. Landau, M. Leese: Cluster Analysis, 4th edn. (Arnold, London 2001)Google Scholar
  256. M. Lerotic, C. Jacobsen, J.B. Gillow, A.J. Francis, S. Wirick, S. Vogt, J. Maser: Cluster analysis in soft x-ray spectromicroscopy: Finding the patterns in complex specimens, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1137–1143 (2005)Google Scholar
  257. R. Mak, M. Lerotic, H. Fleckenstein, S. Vogt, S.M. Wild, S. Leyffer, Y. Sheynkin, C. Jacobsen: Non-negative matrix analysis for effective feature extraction in x-ray spectromicroscopy, Faraday Discuss. 171(1), 357–371 (2014)Google Scholar
  258. A. Scheinost, R. Kretzschmar, I. Christl, C. Jacobsen: Carbon group chemistry of humic and fulvic acid: A comparison of C-1s NEXAFS and \({}^{13}\)C-NMR spectroscopies. In: Humic Substances: Structures, Models and Functions, ed. by E.A. Ghabbour, G. Davies (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 2001) pp. 37–45Google Scholar
  259. M. Schumacher, I. Christl, A. Scheinost, C. Jacobsen, R. Kretzschmar: Chemical heterogeneity of organic soil colloids investigated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy and C-1s NEXAFS microscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 9094–9100 (2005)Google Scholar
  260. D. Solomon, J. Lehmann, J. Kinyangi, B. Liang, T. Schäfer: Carbon K-edge NEXAFS and FTIR-ATR spectroscopic investigation of organic carbon speciation in soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69, 107–119 (2005)Google Scholar
  261. J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells: Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995), also available as Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory report LBL-36371Google Scholar
  262. J.V. Abraham-Peskir: X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation: Applications to cellular biology, Cell. Mol. Biol. 46, 1045–1052 (2000)Google Scholar
  263. J.L. Carrascosa, R.M. Glaeser: Focused issue on x-ray microscopy of biological materials, J. Struct. Biol. 177(2), 177–178 (2012)Google Scholar
  264. M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H.M. Hertz: Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy, J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000)Google Scholar
  265. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, A.E. Christakou, H.M. Hertz: Laboratory soft-x-ray microscope for cryotomography of biological specimens, Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2728–2730 (2011)Google Scholar
  266. E. Duke, K. Dent, M. Razi, L.M. Collinson: Biological applications of cryo-soft x-ray tomography, J. Microsc. 255(2), 65–70 (2014)Google Scholar
  267. H.N. Chapman, J. Fu, C. Jacobsen, S. Williams: Dark-field x-ray microscopy of immunogold-labeled cells, Microsc. Microanal. 2(2), 53–62 (1996)Google Scholar
  268. W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S.A. Lelievre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A.L. Pearson, D. Yager, M.A. Legros, C.A. Larabell: High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy, J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001)Google Scholar
  269. S. Vogt, M. Jäger, G. Schneider, E. Schulze, H. Saumweber, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: Visualizing specific nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells using soft x-ray microscopy, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 1312–1314 (2001)Google Scholar
  270. C.J. Buckley, N. Khaleque, S.J. Bellamy, M. Robins, X. Zhang: Mapping the organic and inorganic components of tissue using NEXAFS, J. Phys. IV 7(C2), 83–90 (1997)Google Scholar
  271. A. Ito, K. Shinohara, H. Nakano, T. Matsumura, K. Kinoshita: Measurement of soft x-ray absorption spectra and elemental analysis in local regions of mammalian cells using an electronic zooming tube, J. Microsc. 181, 54–60 (1996)Google Scholar
  272. A.P. Hitchcock, C. Morin, Y.M. Heng: Towards practical soft x-ray spectromicroscopy of biomaterials, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 13(8), 919–937 (2002)Google Scholar
  273. A.P. Hitchcock, J.J. Dynes, J.R. Lawrence, M. Obst, G.D.W. Swerhone, D.R. Korber, G.G. Leppard: Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy of nickel sorption in a natural river biofilm, Geobiology 7(4), 432–453 (2009)Google Scholar
  274. J. Kawai, K. Takagawa, S. Fujisawa, A. Ektessabi, S. Hayakawa: Microbeam XANES and x-ray fluorescence analysis of cadmium in kidney, J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 19(4), 541–546 (2007)Google Scholar
  275. K.M. Kemner, S.D. Kelly, J. Maser, E.J. O'Loughlin, D. Sholto-Douglas, Z. Cai, M.A. Schneegurt, C.F. Kulpa, K.H. Nealson: Elemental and redox analysis of single bacterial cells by x-ray microbeam analysis, Science 306(5696), 686–687 (2004)Google Scholar
  276. R. Ortega, G. Devès, A. Carmona: Bio-metals imaging and speciation in cells using proton and synchrotron radiation x-ray microspectroscopy, J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S649–S658 (2009)Google Scholar
  277. T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, G. Woloschak: X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine, J. Cell. Biochem. 99, 1489–1502 (2006)Google Scholar
  278. C.J. Fahrni: Biological applications of x-ray fluorescence microscopy: Exploring the subcellular topography and speciation of transition metals, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 11, 121–127 (2007)Google Scholar
  279. M.D. de Jonge, S. Vogt: Hard x-ray fluorescence tomography – An emerging tool for structural visualization, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20(5), 606–614 (2010)Google Scholar
  280. C.A. Larabell, M.A. Le Gros: X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution, Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957–962 (2004)Google Scholar
  281. J. Pine, J. Gilbert: Live cell specimens for x-ray microscopy. In: X-Ray Microscopy III, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 67, ed. by A.G. Michette, G.R. Morrison, C.J. Buckley (Springer, Berlin 1992) pp. 384–387Google Scholar
  282. J.R. Gilbert, J. Pine: Imaging and etching: Soft x-ray microscopy on whole wet cells, Proc. SPIE 1741, 402–408 (1992)Google Scholar
  283. G.F. Foster, C.J. Buckley, P.M. Bennett, R.E. Burge: Investigation of radiation damage to biological specimens at water window wavelengths, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 599–600 (1992)Google Scholar
  284. P.M. Bennett, G.F. Foster, C.J. Buckley, R.E. Burge: The effect of soft x-radiation on myofibrils, J. Microsc. 172, 109–119 (1993)Google Scholar
  285. U. Neuhäusler, S. Abend, G. Lagaly, C. Jacobsen: Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy on solid stabilized emulsions, Colloid Polym. Sci. 277, 719–726 (1999)Google Scholar
  286. T.W. Ford, A.M. Page, G.F. Foster, A.D. Stead: Effects of soft x-ray irradiation on cell ultrastructure, Proc. SPIE 1741, 325–332 (1992)Google Scholar
  287. S. Williams, X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Lindaas, J. van't Hof, S.S. Lamm: Measurements of wet metaphase chromosomes in the scanning transmission x-ray microscope, J. Microsc. 170, 155–165 (1993)Google Scholar
  288. J. Coetzee, C.F. van der Merwe: Extraction of substances during glutaraldehyde fixation of plant cells, J. Microsc. 135(2), 147–158 (1984)Google Scholar
  289. J. Coetzee, C.F. van der Merwe: Extraction of carbon 14-labeled compounds from plant tissue during processing for electron microscopy, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 11(2), 155–160 (1989)Google Scholar
  290. A.D. Stead, R.A. Cotton, A.M. Page, M.D. Dooley, T.W. Ford: Visualization of the effects of electron microscopy fixatives on the structure of hydrated epidermal hairs of tomato (Lycopersicum peruvianum) as revealed by soft x-ray contact microscopy, Proc. SPIE 1741, 351–362 (1992)Google Scholar
  291. E. O'Toole, G. Wray, J. Kremer, J.R. McIntosh: High voltage cryomicroscopy of human blood platelets, J. Struct. Biol. 110, 55–66 (1993)Google Scholar
  292. S. Jearanaikoon: An x-ray microscopy perspective on the effect of glutaraldehyde fixation on cells, J. Microsc. 218(2), 185–192 (2005)Google Scholar
  293. K. Taylor, R. Glaeser: Electron diffraction of frozen, hydrated protein crystals, Science 106, 1036–1037 (1974)Google Scholar
  294. R.A. Steinbrecht, K. Zierold (Eds.): Cryotechniques in Biological Electron Microscopy (Springer, Berlin 1987)Google Scholar
  295. J. Dubochet, M. Adrian, J.J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, J. Lepault, A.W. McDowell, P. Schultz: Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens, Q. Rev. Biophys. 21, 129–228 (1988)Google Scholar
  296. P. Echlin: Low-Temperature Microscopy and Analysis (Plenum, New York 1992)Google Scholar
  297. T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen: Soft x-ray radiation-damage studies in PMMA using a cryo-STXM, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(3), 280–283 (2003)Google Scholar
  298. M.A. Le Gros, G. McDermott, M. Uchida, C.G. Knoechel, C.A. Larabell: High-aperture cryogenic light microscopy, J. Microsc. 235(1), 1–8 (2009)Google Scholar
  299. E.A. Smith, B.P. Cinquin, M. Do, G. Mcdermott, M.A. Le Gros, C.A. Larabell: Correlative cryogenic tomography of cells using light and soft x-rays, Ultramicroscopy 143(C), 33–40 (2014)Google Scholar
  300. C. Hagen, P. Guttmann, B. Klupp, S. Werner, S. Rehbein, T.C. Mettenleiter, G. Schneider, K. Grünewald: Correlative VIS-fluorescence and soft x-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of adherent cells, J. Struct. Biol. 177(2), 193–201 (2012)Google Scholar
  301. G.E. Brown Jr., N.C. Sturchio: An overview of synchrotron radiation applications to low temperature geochemistry and environment science, Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 49(1), 1–115 (2002)Google Scholar
  302. U. Neuhäusler, C. Jacobsen, D. Schulze, D. Stott, S. Abend: A specimen chamber for soft x-ray spectromicroscopy on aqueous and liquid samples, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 110–112 (2000)Google Scholar
  303. J.R. Lawrence, G.D.W. Swerhone, G.G. Leppard, T. Araki, X. Zhang, M.M. West, A.P. Hitchcock: Scanning transmission x-ray, laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy mapping of the exopolymeric matrix of microbial biofilms, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(9), 5543–5554 (2003)Google Scholar
  304. T.H. Yoon, S.B. Johnson, K. Benzerara, C.S. Doyle, T. Tyliszczak, D.K. Shuh, G.E. Brown: In situ characterization of aluminum-containing mineral-microorganism aqueous suspensions using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, Langmuir 20(24), 10361–10366 (2004)Google Scholar
  305. C.S. Chan, G. de Stasio, S.A. Welch, M. Girasole, B.H. Frazer, M.V. Nesterova, S. Fakra, J.F. Banfield: Microbial polysaccharides template assembly of nanocrystal fibers, Science 303(5664), 1656–1658 (2004)Google Scholar
  306. S.C.B. Myneni, T.K. Tokunaga, G.E. Brown Jr.: Abiotic selenium redox transformations in the presence of Fe(II,III) oxides, Science 278, 1106–1109 (1997)Google Scholar
  307. B.P. Tonner, T. Droubay, J. Denlinger, W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, J. Rothe, E. Kneedler, K. Pecher, K. Nealson, T. Grundl: Soft x-ray spectroscopy and imaging of interfacial chemistry in environmental specimens, Surf. Interface Anal. 27(4), 247–258 (1999)Google Scholar
  308. K. Pecher, D. McCubbery, E. Kneedler, J. Rothe, J. Bargar, G. Meigs, L. Cox, K. Nealson, B.P. Tonner: Quantitative charge state analysis of manganese biominerals in aqueous suspension using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67(6), 1089–1098 (2003)Google Scholar
  309. C.K. Boyce, G.D. Cody, M. Feser, C. Jacobsen, A.H. Knoll, S. Wirick: Organic chemical differentiation within fossil plant cell walls detected with x-ray spectromicroscopy, Geology 30, 1039–1042 (2002)Google Scholar
  310. C.K. Boyce, M.A. Zwieniecki, G.D. Cody, C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, A.H. Knoll, N.M. Holbrook: Evolution of xylem lignification and hydrogel transport regulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(50), 17555–17558 (2004)Google Scholar
  311. R.E. Botto, G.D. Cody, J. Kirz, H. Ade, S. Behal, M. Disko: Selective chemical mapping of coal microheterogeneity by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, Energy Fuels 8, 151–154 (1994)Google Scholar
  312. G.D. Cody, R.E. Botto, H. Ade, S. Behal, M. Disko, S. Wirick: Inner-shell spectroscopy and imaging of a subbituminous coal: In-situ analysis of organic and inorganic microstructure using C(1s)-, Ca(2p)-, and Cl(2s)-NEXAFS, Energy Fuels 9, 525–533 (1995)Google Scholar
  313. J. Thieme, J. Niemeyer, P. Guttmann, T. Wilhein, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl: X-ray microscopy studies of aqueous colloid systems, Prog. Colloid Polym. Sci. 95, 135–138 (1994)Google Scholar
  314. J. Thieme, J. Niemeyer: Interaction of colloidal soil particles, humic substances and cationic detergents studied by x-ray microscopy, Prog. Colloid Polym. Sci. 111, 193–201 (1998)Google Scholar
  315. T. Schäfer, N. Hertkorn, R. Artinger, F. Claret, A. Bauer: Functional group analysis of natural organic colloids and clay association kinetics using C(1s) spectromicroscopy, J. Phys. IV 104, 409–412 (2003)Google Scholar
  316. J. Lehmann, D. Solomon, J. Kinyangi, L. Dathe, S. Wirick, C. Jacobsen: Spatial complexity of soil organic matter forms at nanometre scales, Nat. Geosci. 1, 238–242 (2008)Google Scholar
  317. T. Schäfer, G. Buckau, R. Artinger, J.I. Kim, S. Geyer, M. Wolf, W.F. Bleam, S. Wirick, C. Jacobsen: Origin and mobility of fulvic acids in the Gorleben aquifer system: Implications from isotopic data and carbon/sulfur XANES, Org. Geochem. 36, 567–582 (2005)Google Scholar
  318. J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. Knöchel: X-ray tomography of a microhabitat of bacteria and other soil colloids with sub-100 nm resolution, Micron 34(6/7), 339–344 (2003)Google Scholar
  319. A. Braun, N. Shah, F.E. Huggins, G.P. Huffman, S. Wirick, C. Jacobsen, K. Kelly, A.F. Sarofim: A study of diesel PM with x-ray microspectroscopy, Fuel 83(7/8), 997–1000 (2004)Google Scholar
  320. K. Dardenne, T. Schäfer, M.A. Denecke, J. Rothe, J.I. Kim: Identification and characterization of sorbed lutetium species on 2-line ferrihydrite by sorption data modeling, TRLFS and EXAFS, Radiochim. Acta 89(7), 469–479 (2001)Google Scholar
  321. B.S. Twining, S.B. Baines, N.S. Fisher, J. Maser, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, A. Tovar-Sanchez, S.A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy: Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe, Anal. Chem. 75, 3806–3816 (2003)Google Scholar
  322. M. Labrenz, G.K. Druschel, T. Thomsen-Ebert, B. Gilbert, S.A. Welch, K.M. Kemner, G.A. Logan, R.E. Summons, G. De Stasio, P.L. Bond, B. Lai, S.D. Kelly, J.F. Banfield: Formation of sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Science 290(5497), 1744–1747 (2000)Google Scholar
  323. M. Bonnin-Mosbah, N. Metrich, J. Susini, M. Salomé, D. Massare, B. Menez: Micro x-ray absorption near edge structure at the sulfur and iron \(K\)-edges in natural silicate glasses, Spectrochim. Acta B 57(4), 711–725 (2002)Google Scholar
  324. J. Foriel, P. Philippot, J. Susini, P. Dumas: High-resolution imaging of sulfur oxidation states, trace elements, and organic molecules distribution in individual microfossils and contemporary microbial filaments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68(7), 1561–1569 (2004)Google Scholar
  325. C.J. Ma, S. Tohno, M. Kasahara, S. Hayakawa: Determination of the chemical properties of residues retained in individual cloud droplets by XRF microprobe at SPring-8, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 217(4), 657–665 (2004)Google Scholar
  326. D.A. Winesett, S. Story, J. Luning, H. Ade: Tuning substrate surface energies for blends of polystyrene and poly(methylmethacrylate), Langmuir 19, 8526–8535 (2003)Google Scholar
  327. T. Koyama, Y. Kagoshima, I. Wada, A. Saikubo, K. Shimose, K. Hayashi, Y. Tsusaka, J. Matsui: High-spatial-resolution phase measurement by micro-interferometry using a hard x-ray imaging microscope, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 421 (2004)Google Scholar
  328. S. Zhu, Y. Liu, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, D. Gersappe, A. Winesett, H. Ade: Confinement-induced miscibility in polymer blends, Nature 400, 49–51 (1999)Google Scholar
  329. A.P. Smith, H. Ade, C.C. Koch, R.J. Spontak: Cryogenic mechanical alloying as an alternative stragetgy for there cycling of tires, Polymer 42, 4453–4457 (2001)Google Scholar
  330. E.G. Rightor, S.G. Urquhart, A.P. Hitchcock, H. Ade, A.P. Smith, G.E. Mitchell, R.D. Priester, A. Aneja, G. Appel, G. Wilkes, W.E. Lidy: Identification and quantitation of urea participates in flexible polyurethane foam formulations by x-ray spectromicroscopy, Macromolecules 35, 5873–5882 (2002)Google Scholar
  331. A.P. Hitchcock, T. Araki, H. Ikeura-Sekiguchi, N. Iwata, K. Tani: 3d chemical mapping of toners by serial section scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, J. Phys. IV 104, 509–512 (2003)Google Scholar
  332. L.M. Croll, H.D.H. Stöver, A.P. Hitchcock: Composite tectocapsules containing porous polymer microspheres as release gates, Macromolecules 38(7), 2903–2910 (2005)Google Scholar
  333. H. Ade, B. Hsiao: X-ray linear dichroism microscopy, Science 262, 1427–1429 (1993)Google Scholar
  334. C.J. Buckley, C. Phanopoulous, N. Khaleque, A. Engelen, M.E.J. Holwill, A.G. Michette: Examination of the penetration of polymeric methylene di-phenyl-di-isocyanate (pMDI) into wood structure using chemical-state x-ray microscopy, Holzforschung 56(2), 215–222 (2002)Google Scholar
  335. H. Ade, S.G. Urquhart: NEXAFS spectroscopy and microscopy of natural and synthetic polymers. In: Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, ed. by T.K. Sham (World Scientific, Singapore 2002) pp. 285–355Google Scholar
  336. Y. Liu, F. Meirer, C.M. Krest, S. Webb: Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy, Nat. Commun. 7, 12634 (2016)Google Scholar
  337. A.M. Wise, J.N. Weker, S. Kalirai, M. Farmand, D.A. Shapiro, F. Meirer, B.M. Weckhuysen: Nanoscale chemical imaging of an individual catalyst particle with soft x-ray ptychography, ACS Catalysis 6, 2178–2181 (2016)Google Scholar
  338. J. Nelson, S. Misra, Y. Yang, A. Jackson, Y. Liu, H. Wang, H. Dai, J.C. Andrews, Y. Cui, M.F. Toney: In operando x-ray diffraction and transmission x-ray microscopy of lithium sulfur batteries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(14), 6337–6343 (2012)Google Scholar
  339. J.N. Weker, X. Huang, M.F. Toney: In situ x-ray-based imaging of nano materials, Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. 12, 14–21 (2016)Google Scholar
  340. Z.H. Levine, A.R. Kalukin, M. Kuhn, S.P. Frigo, I. McNulty, C.C. Retsch, Y. Wang, U. Arp, T.B. Lucatorto, B.D. Ravel, C. Tarrio: Tomography of an integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void, J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4483–4488 (2000)Google Scholar
  341. G. Schneider, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, N. Hoffmann, W. Hasse: In situ x-ray microscopic observation of the electromigration in passivated Cu interconnects, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1936–1938 (2001)Google Scholar
  342. E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, G. Schneider: Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711–093715 (2009)Google Scholar
  343. A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, W. Yun: High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources, Proc. SPIE 63181, 63181D (2006)Google Scholar
  344. J. Deng, Y.P. Hong, S. Chen, Y.S.G. Nashed, T. Peterka, A.J.F. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, C. Jacobsen: Nanoscale x-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching, Phys. Rev. B 95(10), 104111 (2017)Google Scholar
  345. M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E.H.R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, G. Aeppli: High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits, Nature 543(7645), 402–406 (2017)Google Scholar
  346. P. Engström, S. Fiedler, C. Riekel: Microdiffraction instrumentation and experiments on the microfocus beamline at the ESRF, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(2), 1348–1350 (1995)Google Scholar
  347. P.G. Evans, E.D. Isaacs, G. Aeppli, Z. Cai, B. Lai: X-ray microdiffraction images of antiferromagnetic domain evolution in chromium, Science 295(5557), 1042–1045 (2002)Google Scholar
  348. C.E. Murray, H.F. Yan, I.C. Noyan, Z. Cai, B.P. Lai: High-resolution strain mapping in heteroepitaxial thin-film features, J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013504–013509 (2005)Google Scholar
  349. Y. Yi, S. Cho, M. Noh, C.-N. Whang, K. Jeong, H.-J. Shin: Characterization of surface chemical states of a thick insulator: Chemical state imaging on MgO surface, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 861–864 (2005)Google Scholar
  350. S. Günther, B. Kaulich, L. Gregoratti, M. Kiskinova: Photoelectron microscopy and applications in surface and materials science, Prog. Surf. Sci. 70(4-8), 187–260 (2002)Google Scholar
  351. J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B.D. Hermsmeier, M.G. Samant, G.R. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, B.P. Tonner: Element-specific magnetic microscopy with circularly polarized x-rays, Science 259, 658–661 (1993)Google Scholar
  352. P. Fischer, T. Eimüller, G. Schütz, P. Guttmann, G. Schmahl, K. Pruegl, G. Bayreuther: Imaging of magnetic domains by transmission x-ray microscopy, J. Phys. D 31, 649–655 (1998)Google Scholar
  353. P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schütz, G.P. Denbeaux, A. Pearson, L. Johnson, D.T. Attwood, S. Tsunashima, M. Kumazawa, N. Takagi, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther: Element-specific imaging of magnetic domains at 25 nm spatial resolution using soft x-ray microscopy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(5), 2322–2324 (2001)Google Scholar
  354. P. Fischer, T. Eimuller, G. Schütz, M. Kohler, G. Bayreuther, G.P. Denbeaux, D.T. Attwood: Study of in-plane magnetic domains with magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 7159–7161 (2001)Google Scholar
  355. H. Stoll, A. Puzic, B. van Waeyenberge, P. Fischer, J. Raabe, M. Buess, T. Haug, R. Höllinger, C. Back, D. Weiss, G. Denbeaux: High-resolution imaging of fast magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3328–3330 (2004)Google Scholar
  356. P. Fischer: Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy, Mater. Today 13(9), 14–22 (2010)Google Scholar
  357. M.-Y. Im, P. Fischer, T. Eimüller, G.P. Denbeaux, S.-C. Shin: Magnetization reversal study of CoCrPt alloy thin films on a nanogranular-length scale using magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4589–4591 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Photon SourceArgonne National Laboratory and Northwestern UniversityArgonne, ILUSA
  2. 2.Advanced Light SourceLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeley, CAUSA

Personalised recommendations