Diffractive Imaging of Single Particles

Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


The computational methods and applications of diffractive (lensless) imaging are reviewed. Far-field scattering (e. g., by neutrons, electrons, light, or x-rays) by a nonperiodic localized potential is detected and the phase problem solved using iterative optimization methods, which allows a three-dimensional image of the object potential to be reconstructed without the need for a lens. The history of the subject and its relationship to the crystallographic phase problem are reviewed, together with a summary of theory, algorithms, uniqueness issues, resolution limits, the constraint ratio concept, and coherence requirements. Applications, from various forms of microscopy (electron, optical, and x-ray) to snapshot x-ray laser single-particle imaging, are reviewed. The method of ptychography, which achieves a similar aim, is reviewed elsewhere in these volumes.



This chapter has summarized the work of many groups and many of the author's collaborators, as indicated in the References. The author is particularly grateful for the help of Malcolm Howells, Uwe Weierstall, Rick Millane, Anton Barty, Nadia Zatsepin, and Rick Kirian during the preparation of this review. The work was supported by NSF STC award 1231306 and NSF ABI 1565180.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of PhysicsArizona State UniversityTempe, AZUSA

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