Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


Ptychography is a computational imaging technique. A detector records an extensive data set consisting of many inference patterns obtained as an object is displaced to various positions relative to an illumination field. A computer algorithm of some type is then used to invert these data into an image. It has three key advantages: it does not depend upon a good-quality lens, or indeed on using any lens at all; it can obtain the image wave in phase as well as in intensity; and it can self-calibrate in the sense that errors that arise in the experimental set up can be accounted for and their effects removed. Its transfer function is in theory perfect, with resolution being wavelength limited. Although the main concepts of ptychography were developed many years ago, it has only recently (over the last 10 years) become widely adopted. This chapter surveys visible light, x-ray, electron, and EUV ptychography as applied to microscopic imaging. It describes the principal experimental arrangements used at these various wavelengths. It reviews the most common inversion algorithms that are nowadays employed, giving examples of meta code to implement these. It describes, for those new to the field, how to avoid the most common pitfalls in obtaining good quality reconstructions. It also discusses more advanced techniques such as modal decomposition and strategies to cope with three-dimensional () multiple scattering.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Electronic & Electrical EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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