Spectroscopy with the Low Energy Electron Microscope

Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


Photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM), going back to the earliest days of electron microscopy, and low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM), successfully deployed since the late 1980s, are examples of cathode lens microscopy in which the sample itself is an integral part of the image forming system. While applications have naturally gravitated towards the acquisition of images to elucidate structure and structural evolution, recent years have also seen a rapidly expanding range of spectroscopic capabilities. These address, for example, the occupied and unoccupied electronic band structures of materials, electrical transport in 2-D systems, crystal growth and 2-D strain, inelastic electron energy loss mechanisms, as well as radiation damage in organic materials during low-energy electron irradiation. In this chapter, we discuss applications of these new spectroscopic methods, as well as recent instrumental developments that further expand the potential uses of cathode lens microscopy.


Spectroscopy low energy electron microscopy Cathode LENS electron mirror LEEM-IV angle resolved reflected electron spectroscopy potentiometry spot-profile analysis electron energy loss spectroscopy radiation effects electron-volt TEM 



The author is grateful to Jim Hannon, Michael Altman, Sense Jan van der Molen, Jan Aarts, Alexander van der Torren, Johannes Jobst, Daniel Geelen, and Eugene Krasovskii for their generous support and assistance in putting this chapter together. Thanks are also due to Ernst Bauer for numerous discussions and inspiration.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IBM T.J. Watson Research CenterYorktown Heights, NYUSA

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