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Despite antibiotic therapy, pneumonia remains a significant worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. The term pneumonia covers several distinct clinical entities, and correct classification is vital as the aetiology, infective organism, antibiotic management and outcome are determined by how and where pneumonia was contracted. Early recog-nition and appropriate treatment improve outcome. Critical care physicians must be familiar with all aspects of pneumonia, as they will be expected to advise on and manage severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and opportunistic pneumonias in immuno-compromised patients in the wards, high depend-ency units (HDUs) and intensive care units (ICUs). Differences in the recently published antibiotic guidelines between the British and American Tho-racic Societies are highlighted in this chapter.
KeywordsAntibiotic Therapy Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Initial Antibiotic Therapy Rapid Antigen Detection Test Structural Lung Disease
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