Advertisement

Lung Disease in Older Patients with HIV

  • Kathleen M. AkgünEmail author
  • Kristina Crothers
Chapter
  • 998 Downloads
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Successful treatment of HIV with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population. As HIV-infected patients are living longer, noninfectious pulmonary diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent with a proportional decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs). Pulmonary OIs such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and tuberculosis are still responsible for a significant proportion of pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected patients. However, bacterial pneumonia (BP) and noninfectious pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and interstitial lung disease (ILD) account for a growing number of pulmonary diseases in aging HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the spectrum and management of pulmonary diseases in aging HIV-infected patients, although limited data exists to guide management of many noninfectious pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of such data, treatment of lung diseases in HIV-infected patients should generally follow guidelines for management established in HIV-uninfected patients.

Keywords

Lung disease Older patients HIV Antiretroviral therapy Non-HIV-associated comorbid diseases Respiratory symptoms Pulmonary function Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pulmonary hypertension Lung cancer 

Background

Successful treatment of HIV with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in an aging HIV-infected population. As HIV-infected patients are living longer, noninfectious pulmonary diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent with a proportional decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs). Pulmonary OIs such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and tuberculosis are still responsible for a significant proportion of pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected patients. However, bacterial pneumonia (BP) and noninfectious pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and interstitial lung disease (ILD) account for a growing number of pulmonary diseases in aging HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the spectrum and management of pulmonary diseases in aging HIV-infected patients, although limited data exists to guide management of many noninfectious pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of such data, treatment of lung diseases in HIV-infected patients should generally follow guidelines for management established in HIV-uninfected patients.

Aging and HIV: A Paradigm Shift

Life expectancy for HIV-infected patients receiving ART has improved significantly since the earliest HIV era. Older HIV-infected adults, defined as patients aged 50 years and older, comprised 25% of the HIV-infected population in 2007 (Fig. 12.1) [1, 2]. By 2015, half of the HIV-infected population is projected to be over 50 years of age [3]. Patients on successful ART with high baseline CD4+ T-cell counts may even reach their eighth decade [2, 4]. Despite these improvements, survival for HIV-infected patients still lags behind HIV-uninfected patients [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Increased comorbid disease, OIs, and HIV infection, itself, contribute to continued discrepancies in life expectancy between HIV-infected and uninfected patients despite the use of ART [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13].
Fig. 12.1

Persons living with diagnosis of HIV infection by age group http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/table15b.htm and http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2009report/pdf/table15a.pdf

Antiretroviral Therapy

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a universally fatal ­disease afflicting young people to a manageable chronic disease affecting and infecting older patients. Compared with the first therapies for HIV developed in the early 1990s, more recent combination ART is less toxic, easier to administer, and more effective. However, the ideal timing of ART initiation remains controversial. It has been well established that patients with CD4+ T-cell counts  <  200 cells/mm3 ­benefit from ART. More recent recommendations suggest that HIV-infected patients benefit from ART initiation when CD4+ T-cell counts are less than 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, untreated viremia in asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell  >  350 cells/mm3 has been associated with progression of non-AIDS-related comorbid medical conditions such as cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal diseases [14, 15, 16]. In response these findings, some experts advocate for ART ­initiation even when CD4+ T-cell counts are greater than 350 cells/mm [3, 17]. However, the timing of ART initiation requires goals specifically tailored to the individual patient.

Age at ART initiation appears to influence response to therapy. Older HIV-infected patients started on ART have faster viral suppression, potentially related to improved adherence compared with younger HIV-infected patients [18, 19]. Yet, despite better adherence and at least comparable if not superior viral suppression, older HIV-infected patients who initiate ART still have lower on-treatment CD4+ T-cell counts, delayed improvement in CD4+ T-cell counts, shorter time to development of AIDS, and higher mortality [18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27]. One study showed that despite fewer AIDS-defining OIs in older patients (22% vs. 31% in younger patients, p  <  0.01) and more rapid viral suppression, mortality was still significantly higher in older HIV-infected patients (37% vs. 27% in younger patients, p  =  0.04) [18].

Aging, Changes in Immunity, and HIV Infection

While a comprehensive discussion of declining immunity associated with aging is beyond the scope of this chapter and is covered in greater detail in an earlier chapter, it is important to highlight immunologic changes common to both HIV infection and normal physiologic aging (Table 12.1). The HIV-infected immune system appears to be a model of multimorbidity and progressive immune dysfunction [3, 27]. The immune system of HIV-infected patients has been compared to that of HIV-uninfected patients 20–30 years older [3, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31]. HIV progression is strongly influenced by age at seroconversion and the time since seroconversion [1, 20, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38]. Patients diagnosed with HIV at age 50 years and older have lower baseline CD4+ T-cell counts compared with younger patients [14].
Table 12.1

Changes in immunity in HIV infection and aging

Immunologic change

HIV-infected patients

Physiologic aging

T-cell subpopulations

CD4+ cells

Naïve cell number

Decreased

Decreased

Memory cell number

Decreased

Normal-high

Resting activation

Highly increased

Increased

Cytokine production

Low

Low-normal

CD8+ cells

CD8+ CD57+

Increased

Increased

Naïve cell number

Decreased

Decreased

Memory cell number

Decreased

Normal-high

Resting activation

Highly Increased

Increased

Cytokine production

Low

Low-high

Senescent phenotype

Very high

High

B-cell subpopulation

Naïve cell number

Normal-low

Normal-low

Memory cell number

Increased

Increased

Resting activation

Increased

Normal

Cytokine production

Increased

Normal

Total IgA and IgG level

Polyclonal increase

Normal

Memory response

Low-normal

Normal

Thymic involution

Increased

Increased

Adapted from Effros (2008)

Many changes in the immune system that occur with HIV infection are similar to those that occur with normal physiologic aging (Table 12.1). HIV-infected persons experience a gradual but persistent loss of host immunity following infection that results in a syndrome of immune deregulation, dysfunction, and deficiency. One of the earliest immunologic impairments seen in HIV infection, similar to aging, is depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, predominantly due to loss of CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes of the effector memory type [39]. During the chronic phase of HIV infection, generalized immune activation occurs and ultimately, progressive decline in the naïve and memory T-cell pool results in systemic CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte depletion [39, 40]. Aging, likewise, results in a decline in CD4+ T-cell counts [3, 41, 42]. Decreased naïve T-cell reserve and thymic involution that occur in HIV-infected patients mirror changes associated with physiologic aging in an HIV-uninfected population [22, 25, 27, 43].

Similar to normal aging, B-cell and T-cell lines display qualitative as well as quantitative abnormalities in HIV infection. B-cell dysfunction can result in polyclonal activation, hypergammaglobulinemia, and lack of specific antibody responses. T-cell dysfunction can result in abnormal host responses to T-cell-dependent antigens. T-cells may also be abnormally activated in a resting state, and cytotoxic T-cell expansion and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon gamma can occur [3, 44, 45]. In both HIV and physiologic aging, there is evidence of T-cell senescence, the hallmarks of which include decreased expression of costimulatory receptors, shortened telomeres, impaired replication, and excessive cytokine production [3]. Accelerated T-cell immune senescence in aging HIV-infected patients may be partially explained by persistent antigen stimulation [3].

Dysfunctional and declining immunity may lead to increased susceptibility to OIs normally associated with advanced HIV infection in aging patients who are not HIV infected [42]. These changes in immunity that occur in both HIV infection and physiologic aging contribute to impaired host defenses and resultant increased susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial and fungal infections [3].

Non-HIV-Associated Comorbid Diseases in HIV

Aging HIV-infected patients are experiencing a growing burden of noninfectious comorbid diseases that likely contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality despite virologic control and immunologic response to ART [1, 5, 11, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51]. Longer duration of HIV-infection leads to accelerated non-AIDS-related organ dysfunction, advanced physiologic aging, and frailty [14, 15, 16, 52, 53]. However, mechanisms for increased comorbid diseases in HIV-infected patients are not fully understood.

Increasingly prevalent comorbid diseases such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, liver disease and pulmonary disease in HIV-infected patients may arise, in part, from physiologic changes classically associated with aging (Fig. 12.2) [5, 6, 11, 13, 31, 52, 53, 54, 55]. HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases such as COPD and lung cancer compared with HIV-uninfected individuals [1, 11, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51]. While HIV-associated dementia has become less common since the introduction of ART, cognitive impairment is still common in patients with stable HIV disease, particularly those with multiple comorbidities [56, 57]. Furthermore, in a small series comparing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients, fMRI activity was decreased among HIV-infected patients to a level equivalent to HIV-uninfected patients 15–20 years older [58].
Fig. 12.2

Model for accelerated progression of chronic lung diseases among HIV-infected patients. Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright(c) American Thoracic Society. CITE: CROTHERS, K et al./2011/HIV Infection and Risk for Incident Pulmonary Diseases in the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era/AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE/VOLUME 183/PAGES 388–395. OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY; DIANE GERN, Publisher

Frailty and HIV-Infected Patients

Multiple studies support the hypothesis that HIV infection results in advanced physiologic aging and progressive frailty even with successful ART use [3, 21, 29, 31, 52, 59, 60, 61]. Frailty is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of at least three of the following factors: weight loss, low physical activity, exhaustion, weak grip strength, and slow walking time. HIV infection is associated with changes in the immune system that may contribute to development of frailty and accelerated progression to AIDS [29, 59, 61]. Frailty in HIV-infected patients has been increasingly recognized and may affect nearly 10% of patients evaluated in an outpatient setting [31, 52, 62]. Accelerated, progressive immune deficiency may contribute to the frailty phenotype, independent of ART use [31, 52]. As in HIV-uninfected patients [63, 64, 65], lower CD4+ T-cell counts are independently associated with frailty in HIV-infected patients, regardless of virologic response [31, 66]. In the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, frailty was equally prevalent in HIV-infected patients as in HIV-uninfected patients who were 10 years older, even in those with the shortest duration of HIV infection [52] (Table 12.2). In addition to low CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-specific risk factors for frailty also include longer time since diagnosis of HIV and history of OIs [62, 66], and frailty in HIV-infected patients increases with duration of HIV infection [52]. Prevalence of the frailty phenotype in HIV declines with ART [31].
Table 12.2

Odds ratio of frailty phenotype and duration of HIV infection [52]

Duration of HIV (in years)

Including all person-visits

Excluding AIDS-related person-visits

Adjusted odds ratio

95% Confidence interval

p for trend

Adjusted odds ratio

95% Confidence interval

p for trend

0

1

 

<0.01

1

 

<0.01

4 or less

3.38

1.25–9.11

 

2.42

0.78–7.53

 

4.01–8

12.95

6.60–25.40

 

4.17

1.52–11.45

 

8.01–12

14.68

7.60–28.35

 

6.25

2.30–16.95

 

As seen in HIV-uninfected patients, additional factors associated with greater likelihood of frailty among HIV-infected patients are a greater burden of comorbid disease and lower serum albumin [62]. Psychosocial risk factors for frailty in HIV-infected patients are higher depression severity scores, treatment with antidepressant medication and unemployed work status [62]. Frailty, in addition to more advanced HIV disease and greater comorbid disease, are risk factors for higher hospitalization rates [62]. Hospitalizations likely further contribute to progressive frailty. Future research is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for frailty and to minimize frailty in aging HIV-infected patients.

Respiratory Symptoms and Aging

Respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea are common in older HIV-infected patients [67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72]. There are diverse etiologies for dyspnea, regardless of HIV infection. These include primary pulmonary pathology (e.g., obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis), pulmonary vascular disease (e.g., pulmonary hypertension), and comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (e.g., congestive heart failure, cardiac ischemia) and musculoskeletal disease (e.g., kyphoscoliosis, myopathy) (Table 12.3). A variety of pulmonary infections may also be responsible for more pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected patients [13]. For example, prior infection with bacterial pneumonia or PCP is associated with long-term dyspnea and expiratory flow impairments on pulmonary function testing [73].
Table 12.3

Causes of dyspnea in HIV-infected patients

Lung diseases

Obstructive lung disease

Emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Asthma Bronchiectasis

Interstitial lung disease

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP)

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP)

Sarcoidosis

Pulmonary vascular diseases

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)

Chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED)

Other secondary causes of pulmonary hypertension

Other

Tuberculosis

Prior PCP infection

Recurrent pneumonia

Sequelae of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Kaposi sarcoma

Diseases of the pleura

Cardiovascular diseases

Congestive heart failure

Cardiomyopathy

Neuromuscular causes

Skeletal muscle weakness

Metabolic

Anemia

Thyroid disease

Other

Hepatopulmonary disease

Deconditioning

Frailty

Functional decline and exercise intolerance appear to be accelerated in HIV-infected patients and can contribute to dyspnea. In an early case–control study of HIV-infected patients without OIs, pulmonary function on exertion and workload were significantly poorer in HIV-infected patients compared to HIV-uninfected controls [74]. HIV-infected patients were tachypneic compared with HIV-uninfected patients and had greater oxygen delivery impairment compared with similar HIV-uninfected patients [74].

Skeletal muscle weakness from muscle wasting or HIV myopathy may contribute to functional decline, exercise intolerance, and resultant dyspnea in HIV-infected patients [75]. In a small study comparing HIV-infected men without prior AIDS-related pulmonary complications (mean CD4+ T-cell count 331 cells/mm3) to age- and weight-matched HIV-uninfected men, lower maximal inspiratory pressure and respiratory muscle endurance were found in HIV-infected patients [75]. Impaired respiratory muscle strength was associated with increased dyspnea compared with HIV-uninfected patients [75].

Risk factors for respiratory symptoms among HIV-infected patients include cigarette smoking, low CD4+ T-cell count, high HIV viral load, and lower pulmonary function [69, 76, 77]. In several studies, cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for dyspnea (in one such study, the odds ratio [OR] for respiratory symptoms in ever vs. never smoker was 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  1.41–5.22, p  =  0.003) [69, 71, 72, 76]. Considering that nearly 50% of HIV-infected patients smoke, respiratory symptoms are likely to become increasingly more prevalent in aging HIV-infected patients [78], unless improved rates of sustained smoking cessation can be achieved in this population.

Lower CD4+ T-cell count (less that 200 cells/mm3) is also a risk factor for dyspnea in HIV-infected patients [69, 77]. Other pulmonary symptoms such as cough, phlegm, and wheeze, are more common in HIV-infected patients regardless of CD4+ T-cell count [69]. Increased respiratory symptoms were reported even in the absence of AIDS-related pulmonary complications such as PCP or recurrent bacterial pneumonia [69]. Higher log plasma HIV viral levels and lower forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) are also risk factors for respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected patients [76].

Pulmonary Function and HIV

Several studies have evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary function test abnormalities in the setting of HIV infection. The most commonly encountered abnormality in this population is a decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO). Impairments in DLCO have been reported since the earliest HIV era [68, 77, 79, 80, 81]. In a cohort of 1,294 HIV-infected patients without AIDS-related diagnoses during the pre-combination ART, isolated impairment of DLCO was common, particularly among injection drug users [77]. Recent studies continue to report impaired DLCO in HIV-infected patients as an early and prominent feature of HIV-associated pulmonary disease [81]. Early emphysematous changes that correlate with DLCO impairment have also been identified on chest CT scan [68].

Black race, injection drug use and cigarette smoking are risk factors for impaired DLCO [77]. In the pre-combination ART, recurrent pulmonary infections were suspected as the main contributor for DLCO impairment in HIV-infected patients [77], and declining DLCO may herald the onset of PCP [80]. Recurrent pulmonary infections are likely to worsen lung function, which may, in turn, contribute to greater susceptibility to repeat infections. Changes in pulmonary function encountered with aging in HIV-infected patients include a decrease in FEV1/FVC with advancing age, similar to that seen in HIV-uninfected patients [76].

Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in HIV-infected patients was first suspected in persons with AIDS during the pre-ART era [82]. However, when formally evaluated with methacholine challenge, results linking HIV with increased risk of AHR have not been consistent [83, 84]. In a study comparing methacholine challenge between 66 HIV-infected patients with eight matched control subjects, Wallace et al. found no increased prevalence of AHR in HIV-infected patients [84]. While AHR was present, there was no independent association with HIV. Similar to HIV-uninfected patients, HIV-infected patients with AHR were more likely to have a history of asthma, recent history of pneumonia or report dyspnea or wheezing during their clinic visit [84]. However, another cross-sectional study comparing 248 HIV-infected men to 236 HIV-uninfected men found that AHR was more common in HIV-infected patients (26.2% HIV-infected patients vs. 14.4% HIV-uninfected patients), especially among HIV-infected smokers [83]. T-cell dysfunction, in the setting of HIV and cigarette smoking, may contribute to occult airway disease and AHR in HIV-infected patients. However, there is no data linking age and increased risk of AHR in HIV-infected patients.

Pulmonary Diseases in Aging HIV-Infected Patients

With improved survival on combination ART, HIV-infected patients have a greater likelihood of developing pulmonary diseases normally associated with aging. In addition, HIV-infected patients appear to be at risk of developing comorbid diseases earlier than HIV-uninfected patients resulting in earlier symptomatology and greater morbidity as they age. Many pulmonary diseases are more common in HIV-infected patients compared with HIV-uninfected patients, and HIV is independently associated with a risk for a number of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases after adjusting for the presence of smoking and other risk factors [13]. The incidence of most of these pulmonary diseases increases with age, regardless of HIV status [13]. A recent study found that physical function may be worse in older HIV-infected patients with chronic pulmonary disease compared with similar HIV-uninfected patients with chronic pulmonary disease, although severity of underlying chronic pulmonary disease was not assessed with pulmonary function tests in this study [85].

Infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases continue to account for a significant burden of disease in HIV-infected patients. Respiratory failure is responsible for the majority of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions [86, 87, 88]. With increasingly prevalent noninfectious pulmonary diseases, exacerbations of these chronic diseases in aging HIV-infected patients are likely to contribute to hospitalizations and ICU admissions.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in HIV-infected patients has been well described in the current ART era [5, 81, 83, 89, 90]. During the early pre-ART era, premature and more pronounced bullous emphysema was reported radiographically [91]. Accelerated emphysema in HIV-infected patients was described by Diaz et al. in 2000 [90]. After matching for age and smoking history, the incidence of emphysema as determined by chest CT scans was 15% in HIV-infected patients compared with 2% in the HIV-uninfected patients (p  =  0.025) [90]. In a recent study examining the prevalence of COPD in a cohort of Veterans, HIV was an independent risk factor for COPD [5]. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for COPD and patient self-report of COPD were more common in HIV-infected Veterans (ICD-9 codes, OR  =  1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.13; p  =  0.04; patient self-report: OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.14–2.18; p  =  0.005) [5].

Risk factors for COPD in HIV-infected patients include current or prior smoking, injection drug use, and a history of bacterial pneumonia (BP) [69, 76, 77, 79, 81, 90]. Earlier studies identified lower CD4+ T-cell counts as a risk factor for COPD but this finding has not been consistently replicated [69, 77]. While smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for COPD, it does not seem to fully account for the increased risk of COPD in HIV infection. Gingo et al. found that while patients with any smoking history had more DLCO impairments than those who never smoked, nearly 50% of never-smokers still had significantly abnormal DLCO on PFTs which may correspond to emphysematous changes on chest CT [81].

The explanations for increased incidence and faster progression of emphysema in HIV-infected patients are not known. The role of past infections or colonization by pulmonary pathogens in the development and progression of COPD has been the focus of investigations in HIV-infected as well as in uninfected patients. Colonization with Pneumocystis has been proposed to play a role in the progressive decline of pulmonary function in HIV-infected patients [92, 93, 94]. In nonhuman primate models, low levels of Pneumocystis result in inflammatory changes in the lung with resultant emphysematous changes [92, 93]. In human subjects found to be colonized with Pneumocystis, systemic inflammatory mediators are elevated which may contribute to development of COPD and airway diseases [94]. In HIV-uninfected patients, latent viral infections have also been implicated in exacerbations of COPD [95]. HIV virus has been identified in the lung epithelial cells of HIV-infected patients and may act similarly to other viruses in contributing to COPD development and exacerbation [96].

Additional mechanisms are likely to contribute to progressive COPD in HIV-infected patients. Cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells are found in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of HIV-infected patients at all stages of HIV disease, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms or clinical infection [96, 97], and may play a role in the development of COPD in HIV-infected patients. In fact, HIV-infected smokers with emphysema have higher proportions of cytotoxic lymphocytes in BAL fluid [90]. Increased enzyme production by alveolar macrophages in HIV-infected patients may play a role in the development of COPD as well. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to destruction of the lung parenchymal architecture resulting in emphysema. MMP production by activated alveolar macrophages may be up-regulated in HIV-infected patients leading to advanced emphysema [98]. Finally, alveolar epithelial cell senescence that increases with age may also contribute to the development of COPD in HIV-infected patients [99].

In the absence of studies examining treatment of COPD in HIV-infected populations, management of COPD should generally follow the same guidelines established for HIV-uninfected persons according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [100]. Treatment with bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids based on symptoms and severity of airflow obstruction are the hallmark for treatment of COPD in HIV-uninfected patients [100]. As with HIV-uninfected patients, smoking cessation should be prioritized. Providers should review vaccination records with their HIV-infected patients to ensure that all patients have received the recommended pneumococcal and yearly influenza vaccines.

However, several aspects of COPD medications in HIV-infected patients on ART warrant consideration. The use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids requires careful monitoring, as inhaled corticosteroids are associated with increased risk of oral candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia [101], and tuberculosis [102]. Regular use of systemic steroids should be avoided. In addition, drug interactions can result in significant medication toxicities. For example, ritonovir, a commonly prescribed protease inhibitor, suppresses the hepatic cytochrome p450 3A4 system (CYP3A4). CYP3A4 is responsible for degrading inhaled corticosteroids, particularly fluticasone [103]. Concurrent use of ritonovir and nasal or inhaled corticosteroids could result in increased levels of circulating exogenous corticosteroid. Elevated serum corticosteroid levels may result in inhibition of the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Cushing syndrome and adrenal insufficiency have been reported in HIV-infected patients taking ritonovir and fluticasone [104, 105, 106]. Future studies are needed to determine the optimal pulmonary regimen for HIV-infected patients with COPD.

COPD is associated with several comorbidities and poor functional status that may complicate care, particularly of older HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Comorbidities associated with COPD include cardiovascular disease, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, malnutrition, anxiety and depression [107]. Notably, many of these diseases are already encountered with increased frequency among HIV-infected patients even in the absence of COPD. HIV-infected patients with COPD should be considered for participation in pulmonary rehabilitation programs, as chronic obstructive lung disease is associated with self-reported increased physical disability [108]. In studies of HIV-uninfected patients with COPD, physical functioning is significantly improved with participation in pulmonary rehabilitation programs [109]. Studies support the safety and potential benefit of exercise training in HIV-infected patients [110], although further studies are needed to determine the role and optimal type of exercise training in HIV-infected patients, particularly older patients with concomitant comorbid diseases such as COPD.

Pulmonary Infections

Bacterial Pneumonia

Early in the HIV epidemic, an increased risk of BP was reported in HIV-infected patients [111]. In a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women who used injection drugs or practiced high-risk sexual behavior, HIV-infected women had a higher incidence rate of BP (8.5 cases/100-person years (py) vs. 0.7 cases/100-py in HIV-uninfected women (p  <  0.001)) [112]. Rates of BP increase with greater immunosuppression. For example, in another study, 2.3 episodes of BP per 100-py were found in patients with CD4+ T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3 compared with 10.8 episodes per 100-py in patients with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 [111].

However, the incidence rates of BP have been declining since the routine use of ART [13, 113, 114] and BP is less likely in patients on ART [13, 113, 114]. PCP prophylaxis may also decrease the risk of BP [111, 112, 115, 116]. Prior to the advent of ART, the risk of BP was decreased in HIV-infected treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for PCP prophylaxis [112, 117]. Studies conducted since the introduction of combination ART have not found similar results with TMP-SMX but did find a protective effect of ART, specifically protease inhibitors, with respect to a decreased risk of BP [113]. Despite these decreases in rates of BP, even with successful ART, the risk of BP remains elevated for HIV-infected patients compared with HIV-uninfected patients [13, 116]. In addition, as the risk of BP increases with age, BP will likely continue to contribute to morbidity and mortality in aging HIV-infected patients.

Bacterial pathogens responsible for BP in HIV-infected patients are similar to those seen in HIV-uninfected patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae are the most common BP pathogens [118, 119]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another frequent cause of BP in HIV-infected patients [118, 119]. Pseudomonas pneumonia is more common in patients with lower CD4+ T-cell counts and is associated with longer hospital stays [118, 120, 121]. There may be a relative absence of BP due to atypical organisms, although this may be impacted by limitations in the ability to detect these organisms [119]. TMP-SMX use as prophylaxis against PCP may increase risk of BP with resistant organisms. Bacteremia is common in HIV-infected patients who develop BP with up to 30% of patients affected in one series [118, 119].

Risk factors for BP include cigarette smoking, injection drug use, alcoholism, declining CD4+ T-cell count, prior PCP, and anemia [111, 112, 113, 115, 122]. Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease include shedding of pneumococcal antigen in the urine and absence of ART use [112, 113, 123]. Mortality is significantly increased in HIV-infected patients with BP [111, 112, 118, 122], especially patients who are bacteremic with pneumococcus [123]. However, a recent study of the effect of HIV on mortality from BP showed no difference between HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected patients hospitalized for BP with respect to length of hospital stay, recovery, or mortality [124].

Treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in HIV-infected patients should generally follow Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines established for treatment of HIV-uninfected patients, although these guidelines were not developed to specifically address BP or CAP in HIV-infected patients [125]. According to the IDSA/ATS guidelines, HIV-uninfected patients with any of the following features are at greatest risk of death from CAP and should at least be admitted to the hospital: age greater than 50 years; comorbid heart failure, cancer, renal, liver, or cerebrovascular disease; altered mental status, heart rate >125 beats/min, respiratory rate >30 breaths/min, systolic blood pressures <90 mmHg, or temperature >40°C or <35°C [125, 126]. Studies have not systematically addressed risk stratification of HIV-infected patients with pneumonia and the need for hospitalization.

In patients with immunosuppressing conditions such as HIV, respiratory fluoroquinolones or a beta-lactam agent with a macrolide is recommended for initial outpatient or non-ICU inpatient therapy [125]. Patients admitted to the ICU for CAP should be treated with combination therapy, consisting of an antipneumococcal beta-lactam and either azithromycin or a respiratory fluoroquinolone [125]. If Pseudomonas is suspected, treatment should include an appropriate antipseudomonal beta-lactam, and either ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or an aminoglycoside, with either azithromycin or a respiratory fluoroquinolone for atypical coverage. For patients with severe CAP and a penicillin allergy, aztreonam should be substituted for the beta-lactam. Given the relatively high proportion of Pseudomonas infections among HIV-infected patients with CAP, providers should consider initial empiric antipseudomonal coverage, particularly in those with more severe immunosuppression and in those who are critically ill [127].

In terms of prevention of BP, pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected patients [128]. Similar to recommendations made for patients aged 65 years and older, single revaccination is also recommended for HIV-infected patients if 5 or more years have passed since the initial vaccine. Current recommendations are for use of the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine.

There is conflicting data regarding the response of HIV-infected patients to the pneumococcal vaccine. Appropriate immunologic response has been reported in HIV-infected patients on ART who receive the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine [129], but reduced efficacy of the pneumococcal vaccine in HIV-infected patients due to inadequate immune response, particularly in those with more severe immunosuppression at the time of vaccination, has also been demonstrated [115]. In patients with CD4+ T-cell counts greater than 200 cells/mm3, pneumococcal vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia [114, 122]. In one series of HIV-infected Veterans with no difference in baseline CD4+ T-cell counts between vaccinated and unvaccinated HIV-infected patients, 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine was associated with a trend towards decreased incidence of BP (HR  =  0.75; 95% CI, 0.50–1.13) [122]. However, patients with higher HIV viral load may have a less effective response to the pneumococcal vaccine [130]. Ongoing studies are evaluating the use of the newer pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in different populations.

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

While the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) has decreased since the advent of ART, it is still a common cause of pulmonary morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, especially patients without access to ART, with inadequate response to ART, or who are noncompliant with ART [13, 119, 131, 132]. ART use and lower HIV viral load is associated with lower incidence of PCP and improved survival after diagnosis of PCP [13, 133]. Older patients may be particularly susceptible to poor outcomes after PCP infection. In a study by Dworkin et al. older patients (age greater than or equal to 60 years) with a history of PCP had an increased risk of death (OR  =  3.7) when compared to younger patients with PCP [133].

Non-ICU patients with PCP should be treated with two double-strength TMP-SMX tabs every 8 h for 21 days total [134, 135]. For critically ill patients, or for patients in whom there is concern for poor absorption of enteral medications, intravenous therapy may be necessary at a dose of 15 mg/kg of TMP divided over 3–4 doses per 24 h period. Patients with PCP and hypoxemia (defined as the partial pressure of arterial oxygen while the patient is breathing room air of less than 70 mmHg or an alveolar–arterial difference greater than 35) also require 21 days of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy. While TMP-SMX is the preferred therapy, alternative regimens may be necessary due to sulfa allergy or failure to respond to intra­venous TMP-SMX after 1 week. Alternative regimens include pentamidine, atovaquone, TMP and dapsone, or primaquine plus clindamycin. There are several side effects associated with these alternative regimens, and dapsone and atovaquone require evaluation for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) prior to initiation of therapy. Patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/mm3 should receive PCP prophylaxis, usually with TMP-SMX.

Patients recovering from PCP who are started on ART may be at risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS is a paradoxical clinical worsening of AIDS-related conditions or infections in the setting ART initiation with rapidly improved CD4+ T-cell count and rapidly dropping HIV viral load. IRIS has commonly been associated with PCP. Older HIV-infected patients may have a blunted IRIS response; however, the effect of age on IRIS incidence or severity is not well described [26].

PCP prophylaxis can safely be discontinued in patients successfully treated with ART and with sustained CD4+ T-cell increases to ≥200 cells/mm3 for at least 3 months [136]. However, these data are derived generally from studies of younger patients, with a median age of approximately 35 years [136]. Whether these same guidelines for discontinuation of PCP prophylaxis are suitable for older HIV-infected patients has not been studied [136].

Lung Cancer

ART has reduced the incidence of AIDS-related tumors such as Kaposi sarcoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for non-AIDS related tumors such as lung cancer [13, 137, 138, 139, 140]. Survival in HIV-infected patients with lung cancer has been reported to be lower than that of the general population [139, 141]. Greater immunosuppression may be responsible for an increased risk of lung cancer and poorer outcomes among HIV-infected patients [138, 142], although more recent studies do not show an association between CD4+ T-cell count and the incidence of lung cancer [140, 143, 144]. Adenocarcinoma is the most common lung cancer histology in HIV-infected patients [145].

Studies of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients are problematic due to the presence of confounding factors, particularly smoking [145]. However, in studies that were able to adjust for smoking, the risk of lung cancer remained elevated in HIV-infected patients [143, 144, 146]. There does not appear to be a synergistic effect of smoking and HIV infection for the risk of lung cancer, although the majority of lung cancer cases in HIV-infected patients are in smokers [146]. Recurrent pneumonia may be a risk factor for lung cancer in younger patients with AIDS [147]. Whether this is due in part to detection bias is unclear.

Given the high prevalence of smoking in HIV-infected patients and an increased life expectancy with successful ART, lung cancer incidence is likely to continue to increase in older HIV-infected patients. As no present studies have addressed the role of screening or treatment of lung cancer in HIV-infected populations, current management of the HIV-infected patient with lung cancer should follow similar guidelines as for HIV-uninfected patients. Future studies need to specifically focus on early detection and optimal treatment of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients.

Pulmonary Hypertension

HIV infection is a risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) regardless of ART use, CD4+ T-cell count or HIV viral suppression [148, 149, 150]. Older age does not appear to be a risk factor for PAH, although chronic cardiovascular, pulmonary, and liver diseases may contribute to secondary pulmonary hypertension. Increased rates of secondary pulmonary hypertension may be expected as HIV-infected patients are aging with these comorbidities. HIV-infected patients with PAH may present at later stages of PAH and die more quickly from untreated PAH compared to HIV-uninfected patients [148]. Typical plexogenic arteriopathy seen in non-HIV-associated PAH is also seen in HIV-associated PAH [148]. Direct activity of HIV in the pulmonary vascular bed has been suspected to contribute to risk of PAH. However, HIV has not been identified on pathologic examination of the pulmonary endothelial cells [151].

Medications routinely used to treat PAH in HIV-uninfected patients such as the endothelin antagonist, bosentan, and synthetic prostacyclins such as epoprostenol may be used to treat PAH in HIV-infected patients [152, 153, 154, 155]. Small case series and case reports show improved outcomes for HIV-infected patients with PAH treated with these agents. Some studies suggest improvement in PAH symptoms, physiologic derangements, and survival with both PAH-specific treatment and with ART [153, 156, 157, 158].

The role of ART in the development of PAH, however, is controversial. Some studies have suggested a role for ART in the development of PAH in HIV-infected patients [159, 160, 161]. Endothelial dysfunction related to ART may partially account for an increased risk of PAH in HIV-infected patients treated with ART [162]. Nonetheless, until more definitive data become available, PAH-specific therapies and ART should be offered to eligible HIV-infected patients with PAH given the otherwise documented benefits of ART and of PAH-specific therapies. Providers should be aware of the potential for medication side effects and toxicities, particularly in patients with viral hepatitis coinfection. Further studies need to determine which HIV-infected patients are candidates for PAH treatment and which PAH treatments are most effective and best tolerated in HIV-infected patients.

Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) increase with age in HIV-uninfected patients [163]. HIV infection is associated with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP), lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP), and sarcoid-like IRIS [96, 164, 165]. However, compared with other pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis has been relatively rare in HIV-infected patients. Studies from the pre-ART era showing lymphocyte-rich alveolitis in the BAL fluid from HIV-infected patients also reported a notable absence of radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis [97, 166]. A recent study comparing lung disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Veterans found a greater incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in the HIV-infected group [13]. However, diagnoses were based on ICD9 codes, and no data on specific etiology of pulmonary fibrosis was available.

Role of ART in Pulmonary Diseases

ART is clearly associated with decreased OI’s and improved survival [167]. Systemically, treatment with ART decreases HIV replication, immune activation, chronic inflammation and increases CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte counts. Within the alveolar space, ART similarly decreases pulmonary HIV viral load and decreases nonspecific pulmonary inflammatory response [168, 169]. Infectious complications such as BP and PCP are less frequent among those on ART [13, 73, 112, 113, 115, 118, 123]. In an earlier study, the initiation of lamivudine was associated with improved dyspnea [69]. With less frequent and less severe infectious complications, risk of ILD – and other chronic lung diseases – may also be reduced with ART use. Indeed, a cohort study of 33,420 HIV-infected Veterans found that incident pulmonary disease was lower in patient already on ART at study enrollment [13].

However, ART use has also been associated with airflow obstruction, the physiologic hallmark of COPD, in two recent studies [76, 81]. In a cohort of 167 HIV-infected patients, ART use was independently associated with irreversible airflow obstruction (OR  =  6.22; 95% CI 1.19–32.43; p  =  0.03) [81]. These data suggest that further research studies on the long-term impact of ART on lung health are warranted.

Future Directions

As HIV-infected patients are treated successfully with ART, the prevalence of chronic pulmonary diseases is likely to increase. Progression of diseases such as COPD may significantly affect quality of life for HIV-infected patients. Cigarette smoking is a major contributor to pulmonary morbidity and mortality in the current ART era. In addition, recurrent respiratory tract infections are likely to contribute to pulmonary impairment in this population. It is important to identify mechanisms to preserve lung function and quality of life among HIV-infected patients. Between the shift of HIV to a chronic disease, the high prevalence of smoking and strong association between aging, smoking, and lung disease, future efforts need to focus on effective smoking cessation strategies specifically geared towards HIV-infected patients [170]. In addition to smoking cessation, safe and effective treatment of pulmonary diseases such as COPD, lung cancer, and PAH in aging HIV-infected patients on ART needs to be established. The role of ART in the development of pulmonary diseases must also be further investigated. Finally, as HIV-infected patients progress in age, the role of screening for chronic lung diseases such as COPD and lung cancer needs to be addressed.

References

  1. 1.
    Operskalski EA, Mosley JW, Busch MP, Stram DO. Influences of age, viral load, and CD4+ count on the rate of progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. Transfusion Safety Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;15(3):243–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mack KA, Ory MG. AIDS and older Americans at the end of the Twentieth Century. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33 Suppl 2:S68–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Effros RB, Fletcher CV, Gebo K, et al. Aging and infectious diseases: workshop on HIV infection and aging: what is known and future research directions. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(4): 542–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies. Lancet 2008;372(9635):293–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crothers K, Butt AA, Gibert CL, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Crystal S, Justice AC. Increased COPD among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative veterans. Chest. 2006;130(5):1326–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goulet JL, Fultz SL, McGinnis KA, Justice AC. Relative prevalence of comorbidities and treatment contraindications in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected veterans. AIDS. 2005;19 Suppl 3:S99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Monga HK, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Breaux K, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection-related morbidity and mortality among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(2):240–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonnet F, Morlat P, Chene G, et al. Causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, Bordeaux, France, 1998–1999. HIV Med. 2002;3(3):195–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friis-Moller N, Sabin CA, Weber R, et al. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(21):1993–2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friis-Moller N, Weber R, Reiss P, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients-association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS. 2003;17(8): 1179–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goulet JL, Fultz SL, Rimland D, et al. Aging and infectious diseases: do patterns of comorbidity vary by HIV status, age, and HIV severity? Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(12):1593–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deeks SG, Phillips AN. HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, ageing, and non-AIDS related morbidity. BMJ. 2009;338:a3172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crothers K, Huang L, Goulet JL, et al. HIV infection and risk for incident pulmonary diseases in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(3): 388–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    El-Sadr WM, Lundgren JD, Neaton JD, et al. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(22):2283–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Emery S, Neuhaus JA, Phillips AN, et al. Major clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(8):1133–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Egger M, May M, Chene G, et al. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360(9327): 119–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hammer SM, Eron Jr JJ, Reiss P, et al. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. JAMA. 2008;300(5):555–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenbaum AH, Wilson LE, Keruly JC, Moore RD, Gebo KA. Effect of age and HAART regimen on clinical response in an urban cohort of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2008; 22(17):2331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silverberg MJ, Leyden W, Horberg MA, DeLorenze GN, Klein D, Quesenberry Jr CP. Older age and the response to and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(7):684–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nogueras M, Navarro G, Anton E, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features, response to HAART, and survival in HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the age of 50 or more. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Micheloud D, Berenguer J, Bellon JM, et al. Negative influence of age on CD4+ cell recovery after highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunodeficiency. J Infect. 2008;56(2):130–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Teixeira L, Valdez H, McCune JM, et al. Poor CD4 T cell restoration after suppression of HIV-1 replication may reflect lower thymic function. AIDS. 2001;15(14):1749–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaufmann GR, Furrer H, Ledergerber B, et al. Characteristics, determinants, and clinical relevance of CD4 T cell recovery to <500 cells/microL in HIV type 1-infected individuals receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(3):361–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gandhi RT, Spritzler J, Chan E, et al. Effect of baseline- and treatment-related factors on immunologic recovery after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-positive subjects: results from ACTG 384. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42(4):426–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Viard JP, Mocroft A, Chiesi A, et al. Influence of age on CD4 cell recovery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: evidence from the EuroSIDA study. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(8):1290–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Manfredi R, Chiodo F. A case-control study of virological and immunological effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with advanced age. AIDS. 2000;14(10):1475–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kalayjian RC, Landay A, Pollard RB, et al. Age-related immune dysfunction in health and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease: association of age and HIV infection with naive CD8+ cell depletion, reduced expression of CD28 on CD8+ cells, and reduced thymic volumes. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(12):1924–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pawelec G, Effros RB, Caruso C, Remarque E, Barnett Y, Solana R. T cells and aging (update february 1999). Front Biosci. 1999;4:D216–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cao W, Jamieson BD, Hultin LE, Hultin PM, Effros RB, Detels R. Premature aging of T cells is associated with faster HIV-1 disease progression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(2): 137–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cao W, Jamieson BD, Hultin LE, Hultin PM, Detels R. Regulatory T cell expansion and immune activation during untreated HIV type 1 infection are associated with disease progression. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25(2):183–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Desquilbet L, Margolick JB, Fried LP, et al. Relationship between a frailty-related phenotype and progressive deterioration of the immune system in HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(3):299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Operskalski EA, Stram DO, Lee H, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: relationship of risk group and age to rate of progression to AIDS. Transfusion Safety Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1995;172(3):648–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Time from HIV-1 seroconversion to AIDS and death before widespread use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative re-analysis. Collaborative Group on AIDS Incubation and HIV Survival including the CASCADE EU Concerted Action. Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe. Lancet 2000;355(9210):1131–7.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Longini Jr IM, Clark WS, Gardner LI, Brundage JF. The dynamics of CD4+ T-lymphocyte decline in HIV-infected individuals: a Markov modeling approach. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4(11):1141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Veugelers PJ, Page KA, Tindall B, et al. Determinants of HIV disease progression among homosexual men registered in the Tricontinental Seroconverter Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140(8):747–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rosenberg PS, Goedert JJ, Biggar RJ. Effect of age at seroconversion on the natural AIDS incubation distribution. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study and the International Registry of Seroconverters. AIDS. 1994;8(6):803–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pezzotti P, Phillips AN, Dorrucci M, et al. Category of exposure to HIV and age in the progression to AIDS: longitudinal study of 1199 people with known dates of seroconversion. HIV Italian Seroconversion Study Group. BMJ. 1996;313(7057):583–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Darby SC, Ewart DW, Giangrande PL, Spooner RJ, Rizza CR. Importance of age at infection with HIV-1 for survival and development of AIDS in UK haemophilia population. UK Haemophilia Centre Directors’ Organisation. Lancet. 1996;347(9015):1573–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grossman Z, Meier-Schellersheim M, Paul WE, Picker LJ. Pathogenesis of HIV infection: what the virus spares is as important as what it destroys. Nat Med. 2006;12(3):289–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Derdeyn CA, Silvestri G. Viral and host factors in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Curr Opin Immunol. 2005;17(4):366–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Calderon E, Sanchez B, Medrano FJ, Stiefel P, Leal M. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in the elderly. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995;14(1):75–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rea IM, Stewart M, Campbell P, Alexander HD, Crockard AD, Morris TC. Changes in lymphocyte subsets, interleukin 2, and soluble interleukin 2 receptor in old and very old age. Gerontology. 1996;42(2):69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Aldrovandi GM, Feuer G, Gao L, et al. The SCID-hu mouse as a model for HIV-1 infection. Nature. 1993;363(6431):732–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eylar EH, Lefranc CE, Yamamura Y, et al. HIV infection and aging: enhanced Interferon- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha production by the CD8+ CD28− T subset. BMC Immunol. 2001;2:10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bronke C, Westerlaken GH, Miedema F, Tesselaar K, van Baarle D. Progression to CMV end-organ disease in HIV-1-infected individuals despite abundance of highly differentiated CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells. Immunol Lett. 2005;97(2):215–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Crum NF, Riffenburgh RH, Wegner S, et al. Comparisons of causes of death and mortality rates among HIV-infected persons: analysis of the pre-, early, and late HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41(2):194–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hessol NA, Koblin BA, van Griensven GJ, et al. Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978–1991. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(11): 1077–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brown TT, Qaqish RB. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review. AIDS. 2006;20(17):2165–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arnsten JH, Freeman R, Howard AA, Floris-Moore M, Lo Y, Klein RS. Decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in aging men with or at risk for HIV infection. AIDS. 2007;21(5):617–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Triant VA, Brown TT, Lee H, Grinspoon SK. Fracture prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected versus non-HIV-infected patients in a large U.S. healthcare system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(9):3499–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Moller N, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(15):1632–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Desquilbet L, Jacobson LP, Fried LP, et al. HIV-1 infection is associated with an earlier occurrence of a phenotype related to frailty. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(11): 1279–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Justice AC. HIV and aging: time for a new paradigm. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7(2): 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Braithwaite RS, Justice AC, Chang CC, et al. Estimating the proportion of patients infected with HIV who will die of comorbid diseases. Am J Med. 2005;118(8):890–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Freiberg MS, Cheng DM, Kraemer KL, Saitz R, Kuller LH, Samet JH. The association between hepatitis C infection and prevalent cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2007;21(2):193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Heaton RK, Clifford DB, Franklin Jr DR, et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER Study. Neurology. 2010;75(23): 2087–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schouten J, Cinque P, Gisslen M, Reiss P, Portegies P. HIV-1 infection and cognitive impairment in the cART-era: a review. AIDS. 2011;25(5):561–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ances BM, Vaida F, Yeh MJ, et al. HIV infection and aging independently affect brain function as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(3): 336–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tenorio AR, Spritzler J, Martinson J, et al. The effect of aging on T-regulatory cell frequency in HIV infection. Clin Immunol. 2009;130(3):298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Effros RB, Austad S, Blau H, et al. The biological sciences section program at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(4):331–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Appay V, Almeida JR, Sauce D, Autran B, Papagno L. Accelerated immune senescence and HIV-1 infection. Exp Gerontol. 2007;42(5):432–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Onen NF, Agbebi A, Shacham E, Stamm KE, Onen AR, Overton ET. Frailty among HIV-infected persons in an urban outpatient care setting. J Infect. 2009;59(5):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Paganelli R, Di Iorio A, Cherubini A, et al. Frailty of older age: the role of the endocrine–immune interaction. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(24):3147–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ginaldi L, De Martinis M, Monti D, Franceschi C. Chronic antigenic load and apoptosis in immunosenescence. Trends Immunol. 2005;26(2):79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Roberts-Thomson IC, Whittingham S, Youngchaiyud U, Mackay IR. Ageing, immune response, and mortality. Lancet. 1974;2(7877):368–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Terzian AS, Holman S, Nathwani N, et al. Factors associated with preclinical disability and frailty among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the era of cART. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(12):1965–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wachtel T, Piette J, Mor V, Stein M, Fleishman J, Carpenter C. Quality of life in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection: measurement by the Medical Outcomes Study instrument. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(2):129–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Diaz PT, King MA, Pacht ER, et al. The pathophysiology of pulmonary diffusion impairment in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(1):272–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Diaz PT, Wewers MD, Pacht E, Drake J, Nagaraja HN, Clanton TL. Respiratory symptoms among HIV-seropositive individuals. Chest. 2003;123(6):1977–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Enright PL, Kronmal RA, Higgins MW, Schenker MB, Haponik EF. Prevalence and correlates of respiratory symptoms and disease in the elderly. Cardiovascular Health Study. Chest. 1994;106(3):827–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dow L, Coggon D, Osmond C, Holgate ST. A population survey of respiratory symptoms in the elderly. Eur Respir J. 1991;4(3):267–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lai CK, Ho SC, Lau J, et al. Respiratory symptoms in elderly Chinese living in Hong Kong. Eur Respir J. 1995;8(12):2055–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morris AM, Huang L, Bacchetti P, et al. Permanent declines in pulmonary function following pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. The Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(2 Pt 1):612–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnson JE, Anders GT, Blanton HM, et al. Exercise dysfunction in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141(3):618–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schulz L, Nagaraja HN, Rague N, Drake J, Diaz PT. Respiratory muscle dysfunction associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155(3): 1080–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    George MP, Kannass M, Huang L, Sciurba FC, Morris A. Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in HIV-infected subjects in the HAART era. PLoS One. 2009;4(7):e6328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rosen MJ, Lou Y, Kvale PA, et al. Pulmonary function tests in HIV-infected patients without AIDS. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(2):738–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gritz ER, Vidrine DJ, Lazev AB, Amick 3rd BC, Arduino RC. Smoking behavior in a low-income multiethnic HIV/AIDS population. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mitchell DM, Fleming J, Pinching AJ, et al. Pulmonary function in human immunodeficiency virus infection A prospective 18-month study of serial lung function in 474 patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146(3):745–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stansell JD, Osmond DH, Charlebois E, et al. Predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected persons. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155(1):60–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gingo MR, George MP, Kessinger CJ, et al. Pulmonary function abnormalities in HIV-infected patients during the current antiretroviral therapy era. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182(6):790–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    O’Donnell CR, Bader MB, Zibrak JD, Jensen WA, Rose RM. Abnormal airway function in individuals with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Chest. 1988;94(5):945–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Poirier CD, Inhaber N, Lalonde RG, Ernst P. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among HIV-infected men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(4):542–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wallace JM, Stone GS, Browdy BL, et al. Nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in HIV disease. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Chest. 1997;111(1):121–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oursler KK, Goulet JL, Crystal S, et al. Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-infected and uninfected patients: results from the veterans aging cohort study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;25(1):13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Powell K, Davis JL, Morris AM, Chi A, Bensley MR, Huang L. Survival for patients With HIV admitted to the ICU continues to improve in the current era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Chest. 2009;135(1):11–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morris A, Creasman J, Turner J, Luce JM, Wachter RM, Huang L. Intensive care of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(3):262–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dickson SJ, Batson S, Copas AJ, Edwards SG, Singer M, Miller RF. Survival of HIV-infected patients in the intensive care unit in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thorax. 2007;62(11):964–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bard M, Couderc LJ, Saimot AG, et al. Accelerated obstructive pulmonary disease in HIV infected patients with bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J. 1998;11(3):771–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Diaz PT, King MA, Pacht ER, et al. Increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema among HIV-seropositive smokers. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(5):369–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kuhlman JE, Knowles MC, Fishman EK, Siegelman SS. Premature bullous pulmonary damage in AIDS: CT diagnosis. Radiology. 1989;173(1):23–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shipley TW, Kling HM, Morris A, et al. Persistent pneumocystis colonization leads to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a nonhuman primate model of AIDS. J Infect Dis. 2010;202(2):302–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morris A, Sciurba FC, Norris KA. Pneumocystis: a novel pathogen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? COPD. 2008;5(1):43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Calderon EJ, Rivero L, Respaldiza N, et al. Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are colonized with Pneumocystis jiroveci. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(2):e17–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hogg JC. Role of latent viral infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(10 Pt 2):S71–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Guillon JM, Autran B, Denis M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphocytic alveolitis. Chest. 1988;94(6):1264–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Twigg HL, Soliman DM, Day RB, et al. Lymphocytic alveolitis, bronchoalveolar lavage viral load, and outcome in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(5 Pt 1):1439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kaner RJ, Santiago F, Crystal RG. Up-regulation of alveolar macrophage matrix metallo­proteinases in HIV1(+) smokers with early emphysema. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86(4):913–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tsuji T, Aoshiba K, Nagai A. Alveolar cell senescence in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(8):886–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Committee, 2010. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Updated 2010. http:// www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLDReport_April112011.pdf (August 23, 2011).
  101. 101.
    Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, et al. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(8):775–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brassard P, Suissa S, Kezouh A, Ernst P. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of tuberculosis in patients with respiratory diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(5):675–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hull MW, Phillips P, Montaner JS. Changing global epidemiology of pulmonary manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Chest. 2008;134(6):1287–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Samaras K, Pett S, Gowers A, McMurchie M, Cooper DA. Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome with osteoporosis and secondary adrenal failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors: six cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(7):4394–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hillebrand-Haverkort ME, Prummel MF, ten Veen JH. Ritonavir-induced Cushing’s ­syndrome in a patient treated with nasal fluticasone. AIDS. 1999;13(13):1803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rouanet I, Peyriere H, Mauboussin JM, Vincent D. Cushing’s syndrome in a patient treated by ritonavir/lopinavir and inhaled fluticasone. HIV Med. 2003;4(2):149–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nazir SA, Erbland ML. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an update on diagnosis and management issues in older adults. Drugs Aging. 2009;26(10):813–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Oursler KK, Goulet JL, Leaf DA, et al. Association of comorbidity with physical disability in older HIV-infected adults. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(11):782–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E, et al. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(12):1390–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    O’Brien K, Nixon S, Tynan AM, Glazier R. Aerobic exercise interventions for adults living with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010(8):CD001796.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hirschtick RE, Glassroth J, Jordan MC, et al. Bacterial pneumonia in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(13):845–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kohli R, Lo Y, Homel P, et al. Bacterial pneumonia, HIV therapy, and disease progression among HIV-infected women in the HIV epidemiologic research (HER) study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(1):90–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sullivan JH, Moore RD, Keruly JC, Chaisson RE. Effect of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of bacterial pneumonia in patients with advanced HIV infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(1):64–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Gelling L, Kool JL, Reingold AL, Vugia DJ. Epidemiologic relation between HIV and invasive pneumococcal disease in San Francisco County, California. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(3):182–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dworkin MS, Ward JW, Hanson DL, Jones JL, Kaplan JE. Pneumococcal disease among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: incidence, risk factors, and impact of vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(5):794–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Navin TR, Rimland D, Lennox JL, et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 2000;181(1): 158–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Feikin DR, Feldman C, Schuchat A, Janoff EN. Global strategies to prevent bacterial pneumonia in adults with HIV disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(7):445–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Afessa B, Green B. Bacterial pneumonia in hospitalized patients with HIV infection: the Pulmonary Complications, ICU Support, and Prognostic Factors of Hospitalized Patients with HIV (PIP) Study. Chest. 2000;117(4):1017–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rimland D, Navin TR, Lennox JL, et al. Prospective study of etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with HIV infection. AIDS. 2002;16(1):85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Baron AD, Hollander H. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bronchopulmonary infection in late human immunodeficiency virus disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(4 Pt 1):992–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Park DR, Sherbin VL, Goodman MS, et al. The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia at an urban public hospital: influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and initial severity of illness. J Infect Dis. 2001;184(3):268–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Goulet J, Brown S, et al. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination on the incidence of pneumonia by HIV infection status among patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5-Site Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(7):1093–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Perello R, Miro O, Marcos MA, et al. Predicting bacteremic pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients consulting the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28(4):454–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Malinis M, Myers J, Bordon J, et al. Clinical outcomes of HIV-infected patients hospitalized with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14(1):e22–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(4):243–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Baddour LM, Yu VL, Klugman KP, et al. Combination antibiotic therapy lowers mortality among severely ill patients with pneumococcal bacteremia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(4):440–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC tNIoH, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. April 10, 2009.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Falco V, Jordano Q, Cruz MJ, et al. Serological response to pneumococcal vaccination in HAART-treated HIV-infected patients: one year follow-up study. Vaccine. 2006;24(14): 2567–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Teshale EH, Hanson D, Flannery B, et al. Effectiveness of 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine on pneumonia in HIV-infected adults in the United States, 1998–2003. Vaccine. 2008;26(46):5830–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Morris A, Lundgren JD, Masur H, et al. Current epidemiology of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(10):1713–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30 Suppl 1:S5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Dworkin MS, Hanson DL, Navin TR. Survival of patients with AIDS, after diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(9):1409–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Thomas Jr CF, Limper AH. Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(24): 2487–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Benson CA, Kaplan JE, Masur H, Pau A, Holmes KK. Treating opportunistic infections among HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association/Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2004;53(15):1–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lopez Bernaldo de Quiros JC, Miro JM, Pena JM, et al. A randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary and secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 04/98. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(3):159–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Herida M, Mary-Krause M, Kaphan R, et al. Incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(18):3447–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Goedert JJ. Association of cancer with AIDS-related immunosuppression in adults. JAMA. 2001;285(13):1736–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bower M, Powles T, Nelson M, et al. HIV-related lung cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003;17(3):371–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chaturvedi AK, Pfeiffer RM, Chang L, Goedert JJ, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Elevated risk of lung cancer among people with AIDS. AIDS. 2007;21(2):207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Burke M, Furman A, Hoffman M, Marmor S, Blum A, Yust I. Lung cancer in patients with HIV infection: is it AIDS-related? HIV Med. 2004;5(2):110–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cooley TP. Non-AIDS-defining cancer in HIV-infected people. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2003;17(3):889–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kirk GD, Merlo C, O’Driscoll P, et al. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(1):103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Engels EA, Brock MV, Chen J, Hooker CM, Gillison M, Moore RD. Elevated incidence of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(9):1383–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cadranel J, Garfield D, Lavole A, Wislez M, Milleron B, Mayaud C. Lung cancer in HIV infected patients: facts, questions and challenges. Thorax. 2006;61(11):1000–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Shiels MS, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Lung cancer incidence and mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(4):510–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Shebl FM, Engels EA, Goedert JJ, Chaturvedi AK. Pulmonary infections and risk of lung cancer among persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(3):375–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mehta NJ, Khan IA, Mehta RN, Sepkowitz DA. HIV-Related pulmonary hypertension: ­analytic review of 131 cases. Chest. 2000;118(4):1133–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hsue PY, Deeks SG, Farah HH, et al. Role of HIV and human herpesvirus-8 infection in pulmonary arterial hypertension. AIDS. 2008;22(7):825–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pellicelli AM, Palmieri F, D’Ambrosio C, et al. Role of human immunodeficiency virus in primary pulmonary hypertension – case reports. Angiology. 1998;49(12):1005–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kanmogne GD, Kennedy RC, Grammas P. Is HIV involved in the pathogenesis of non-infectious pulmonary complications in infected patients? Curr HIV Res. 2003;1(4):385–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sitbon O, Gressin V, Speich R, et al. Bosentan for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(11): 1212–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Opravil M, Sereni D. Natural history of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: trends in the HAART era. AIDS. 2008;22 Suppl 3:S35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sitbon O. HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension: clinical presentation and management. AIDS. 2008;22 Suppl 3:S55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Barnier A, Frachon I, Dewilde J, Gut-Gobert C, Jobic Y, Leroyer C. Improvement of HIV-related pulmonary hypertension after the introduction of an antiretroviral therapy. Eur Respir J. 2009;34(1):277–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Barbaro G, Lucchini A, Pellicelli AM, Grisorio B, Giancaspro G, Barbarini G. Highly active antiretroviral therapy compared with HAART and bosentan in combination in patients with HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension. Heart. 2006;92(8):1164–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Degano B, Yaici A, Le Pavec J, et al. Long-term effects of bosentan in patients with HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(1):92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zuber JP, Calmy A, Evison JM, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension related to HIV infection: improved hemodynamics and survival associated with antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(8):1178–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Feiterna-Sperling C, Huseman D, Timme J, Buhrer C, Obladen M. Resolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection-related severe pulmonary hypertension in a very low-birth-weight infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(6):564–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pugliese A, Isnardi D, Saini A, Scarabelli T, Raddino R, Torre D. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients with cardiac involvement. J Infect. 2000;40(3): 282–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Reinsch N, Buhr C, Krings P, et al. Effect of gender and highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the HIV-HEART Study. HIV Med. 2008;9(7):550–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wang X, Chai H, Lin PH, Yao Q, Chen C. Roles and mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir and other anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs in endothelial dysfunction of porcine pulmonary arteries and human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2009;174(3):771–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Selman M, Rojas M, Mora AL, Pardo A. Aging and interstitial lung diseases: unraveling an old forgotten player in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;31(5):607–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Das S, Miller RF. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in HIV infected adults. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79(2):88–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Naccache JM, Antoine M, Wislez M, et al. Sarcoid-like pulmonary disorder in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(6):2009–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pacht ER, Diaz P, Clanton T, Hart J, Gadek JE. Alveolar fluid glutathione decreases in asymptomatic HIV-seropositive subjects over time. Chest. 1997;112(3):785–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Palella Jr FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(13):853–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Twigg HL, Knox KS. HIV-Related Lung Disorders. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2007;4(2): 95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Petrache I, Diab K, Knox KS, et al. HIV associated pulmonary emphysema: a review of the literature and inquiry into its mechanism. Thorax. 2008;63(5):463–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Niaura R, Shadel WG, Morrow K, Tashima K, Flanigan T, Abrams DB. Human immuno­deficiency virus infection, AIDS, and smoking cessation: the time is now. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(3):808–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineYale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut Healthcare SystemNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Harborview Medical CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations