Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma: The Importance of FISH and Cytogenetics

  • Esteban Braggio
  • Michael Sebag
  • Rafael Fonseca
Part of the Contemporary Hematology book series (CH)

Cyto-Molecular Techniques

Conventional Cytogenetics and Spectral Karyotyping

Conventional cytogenetics (CC) analysis has been employed widely in the study and clinical management of hematological malignancies, allowing the mapping of the whole genome for numeric and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Most centers, including ours, have incorporated karyotypic analysis to the baseline evaluation of multiple myeloma (MM) patients 1. However, CC identifies abnormalities in only 10–15% of cases. 2, 3, 4, 5 Several factors and technical restrictions are associated with this low detection rate, the most important of which is the low proliferative index (< 1%) intrinsic to MM tumor cells (Table 1). 2 Additionally, while numeric and larger structural changes can be routinely identified, certain smaller structural abnormalities remain cryptic, particularly those located in subtelomeric regions, such as the t(4;14)(p16.3;q32). 6To overcome the low proliferative index, the stimulation of bone...


Overall Survival Multiple Myeloma Median Overall Survival Stem Cell Support Plasma Cell Leukemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esteban Braggio
    • 1
  • Michael Sebag
    • 1
  • Rafael Fonseca
    • 1
  1. 1.Mayo ClinicScottsdaleUSA

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