Advertisement

Mechanisms of Acute Liver Failure

  • Christian Trautwein
  • Alexander Koch
Chapter
  • 1.5k Downloads

Abstract

Acute liver failure is characterized by the sudden onset of liver failure in a patient without evidence of chronic liver disease. This definition is important, as it differentiates patients with acute liver failure from patients who suffer from liver failure owing to end-stage chronic liver disease.

Keywords

Hepatic Encephalopathy Liver Regeneration Acute Liver Failure Fulminant Hepatic Failure Acute Liver Failure Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    O’Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R. Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes. Lancet 1993; 342:273–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Williams R. Classification, etiology, and considerations of outcome in acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sussman NL. Fulminant hepatic failure. In: Zakim D, Boyer T, eds. A Textbook of Liver Disease, McGraw-Hill, York. 1996; 618–650.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Losser MR, Payen D. Mechanisms of liver damage. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:357–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fagan EA, Williams R. Fulminant viral hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990; 46:462–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Masada CT, Shaw BW Jr, Zetterman RK, Kaufman SS, Markin RS. Fulminant hepatic failure with massive necrosis as a result of hepatitis A infection. J Clin Gastroenterol 1993; 17:158–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoofnagle JH, Carithers RL Jr, Shapiro C, Ascher N. Fulminant hepatic failure: summary of a workshop. Hepatology 1995; 21: 240–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chisari FV. Rous-Whipple Award Lecture. Viruses, immunity, and cancer: lessons from hepatitis B. Am J Pathol 2000; 156: 1117–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liang TJ, Hasegawa K, Rimon N, Wands JR, Ben-Porath E. A hepatitis B virus mutant associated with an epidemic of fulminant hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1705–1709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stuyver L, De Gendt S, Cadranel JF, et al. Three cases of severe subfulminant hepatitis in heart-transplanted patients after nosocomial transmission of a mutant hepatitis B virus. Hepatology 1999; 29: 1876–1883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guidotti LG, Rochford R, Chung J, Shapiro M, Purcell R, Chisari FV. Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. Science 1999; 284:825–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mendez L, Reddy KR, DiPrima RA, Jeffers LJ, Schiff ER. Fulminant hepatic failure due to acute hepatitis B and delta coinfection: probable bloodborne transmission associated with a springloaded fingerstick device. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86:895–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshiba M, Dehara K, Inoue K, Okamoto H, Mayumi M. Contribution of hepatitis C virus to non-A, non-B fulminant hepatitis in Japan. Hepatology 1994; 19:829–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gruener NH, Lechner F, Jung MC, et al. Sustained dysfunction of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes after infection with hepatitis C virus. J Virol 2001; 75:5550–5558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamid SS, Jafri SM, Khan H, Shah H, Abbas Z, Fields H. Fulminant hepatic failure in pregnant women: acute fatty liver or acute viral hepatitis? J Hepatol 1996; 25:20–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use. JAMA 1994; 272: 1845–1850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Makin AJ, Williams R. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: predisposing factors and treatments. Adv Intern Med 1997; 42: 453–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davern T, James L, Hinson J, Polson J, Larson M, et al. Measurement of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts in patients with acute liver failure. Gastroenterology 2006; 130:687–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shakil AO, Mazariegos GV, Kramer DJ. Fulminant hepatic failure. Surg Clin North Am 1999; 79:77–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neuberger J. Halothane hepatitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 10:631–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Okuda K, Kage M, Shrestha SM. Proposal of a new nomenclature for BuddChiari syndrome: hepatic vein thrombosis versus thrombosis of the inferior vena cava at its hepatic portion. Hepatology 1998; 28:1191–1198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Faust TW. Budd-Chiari Syndrome. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 1999; 2:491–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deltenre P, Denninger MH, Hillaire S, et al. Factor V Leiden related BuddChiari syndrome. Gut 2001; 48:264–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khuroo MS, A1-Suhabani H, A1-Sebayel M, et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome: longterm effect on outcome with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005; 20:1494–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quateen A, Pech M, Berg T, et al. Percutaneous transjugular direct porto-caval shunt in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2006; 29(4):565–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mercer JF. The molecular basis of copper-transport diseases. Trends Mol Med 2001; 7:64–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomas GR, Forbes JR, Roberts EA, Walshe JM, Cox DW. The Wilson disease gene: spectrum of mutations and their consequences. Nat Genet 1995; 9:210–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gow PJ, Smallwood RA, Angus PW, Smith AL, Wall AJ, Sewell RB. Diagnosis of Wilson’s disease: an experience over three decades. Gut 2000; 46:415–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strand S, Hofmann WJ, Grambihler A, et al. Hepatic failure and liver cell damage in acute Wilson’s disease involve CD95 (APO-1/Fas) mediated apoptosis. Nat Med 1998; 4:588–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Butterworth RF. Hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in acute hepatic failure: does glutamate play a role? Hepatology 1997; 25:1032–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hazell AS, Butterworth RF. Hepatic encephalopathy: An update of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999; 222:99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhatia V, Singh R, Acharya SK. Predictive value of arterial ammonia for complications and outcome in acute liver failure. Gut 2006; 55:98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Clemmesen JO, Larsen FS, Kondrup J, Hansen BA, Ott P. Cerebral herniation in patients with acute liver failure is correlated with arterial ammonia concentration. Hepatology 1999; 29:648–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jalan R, Olde Damink SW, Deutz NE, Hayes PC, Lee A. Restoration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation and reactivity to carbon dioxide in acute liver failure by moderate hypothermia. Hepatology 2001; 34:50–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jalan R, Olde Damink SW, Deutz NE, et al. Moderate hypothermia prevents cerebral hyperemia and increase in intracranial pressure in patients undergoing liver transplantation for acute liver failure. Transplantation 2003; 75:2034–2039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roberts DR, Manas D. Induced hypothermia in the management of cerebral oedema secondary to fulminate liver failure. Clin Transplant 1999; 13:545–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fu T, Blei AT, Takamura N, et al. Hypothermia inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis of primary mouse hepatocytes in culture. Cell Transplant 2004; 13:667–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rolando N, Wade J, Davalos M, Wendon J, Philpott-Howard J, Williams R. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome in acute liver failure. Hepatology 2000; 32:734–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rolando N, Philpott-Howard J, Williams R. Bacterial and fungal infection in acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:389–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wade JJ, Rolando N, Hayllar K, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell MW, Williams R. Bacterial and fungal infections after liver transplantation: an analysis of 284 patients. Hepatology 1995; 21:1328–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Trewby PN, Warren R, Contini S, et al. Incidence and pathophysiology of pulmonary edema in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology 1978; 74:859–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rolando N, Harvey F, Brahm J, et al. Prospective study of bacterial infection in acute liver failure: an analysis of fifty patients. Hepatology 1990; 11:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Williams A, Trewby P, Williams R, Reid L. Structural alterations to the pulmonary circulation in fulminant hepatic failure. Thorax 1979; 34:447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sussman NL, Lake JR. Treatment of hepatic failure—1996: current concepts and progress toward liver dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 27:605–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wong F, Blendis L. Hepatorenal failure. Clin Liver Dis 2000; 4:169–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Izumi S, Langley PG, Wendon J, et al. Coagulation factor V levels as a prognostic indicator in fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology 1996; 23:1507–1511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee WM. Management of acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Heinrich PC, Behrmann I, Muller-Newen G, Schaper F, Graeve L. Interleukin6-type cytokine signalling through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway. Biochem J 1998; 334:297–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Streetz K, Fregien B, Plumpe J, et al. Dissection of the intracellular pathways in hepatocytes suggests a role for Jun kinase and IFN regulatory factor-1 in Con A-induced liver failure. J Immunol 2001; 167:514–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Streetz KL, Wustefeld T, Klein C, Manns MP, Trautwein C. Mediators of inflammation and acute phase response in the liver. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-leGrand) 2001; 47:661–673.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Streetz KL, Wustefeld T, Graw A, et al. The role of gp130 during acute-phasereaction and liver injury. Hepatology 2001; 34:278A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Higgins GM, Anderson RM. Experimental pathology of liver. I. Restoration of liver of white rat following partial surgical removal. ArchPathol 1931; 12:186–202.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Trautwein C, Rakemann T, Niehof M, Rose-John S, Manns MP. Acutephase response factor, increased binding, and target gene transcription during liver regeneration. Gastroenterology 1996; 110:1854–1862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cressman DE, Greenbaum LE, DeAngelis RA, et al. Liver failure and defective hepatocyte regeneration in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Science 1996; 274:1379–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yamada Y, Kirillova I, Peschon JJ, Fausto N. Initiation of liver growth by tumor necrosis factor: deficient liver regeneration in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:1441–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wuestefeld T, Klein C, Streetz KL, et al. gp130-dependent pathways are essential in regulating the priming phase and acute phase response after partial hepatectomy. Hepatology 2001; 34:386A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Streetz K, Leifeld L, Grundmann D, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of human and murine fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology 2000; 119:446–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Trautwein C, Rakemann T, Malek NP, Plumpe J, Tiegs G, Manns MP. Concanavalin A-induced liver injury triggers hepatocyte proliferation. J Clin Invest 1998; 101:1960–1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hecht N, Pappo O, Shouval D, Rose-John S, Galun E, Axelrod JH. Hyper-IL-6 gene therapy reverses fulminant hepatic failure. Mol Ther 2001; 3:683–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Galun E, Zeira E, Pappo O, Peters M, Rose-John S. Liver regeneration induced by a designer human IL-6/sIL-6R fusion protein reverses severe hepatocellular injury. FASEB J 2000; 14:1979–1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kovalovich K, Li W, DeAngelis R, Greenbaum LE, Ciliberto G, Taub R. Interleukin-6 protects against Fas-mediated death by establishing a critical level of anti-apoptotic hepatic proteins FLIP, Bcl-2, and BclxL. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:26,605–26,613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Li W, Liang X, Leu JI, Kovalovich K, Ciliberto G, Taub R. Global changes in interleukin-6-dependent gene expression patterns in mouse livers after partial hepatectomy. Hepatology 2001; 33: 1377–1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bradham CA, Plumpe J, Manns MP, Brenner DA, Trautwein C. Mechanisms of hepatic toxicity. I. TNF-induced liver injury. Am J Physiol 1998; 275:G387–G392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Essani NA, Bajt ML, Farhood A, Vonderfecht SL, Jaeschke H. Transcriptional activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 gene in vivo and its role in the pathophysiology of neutrophil-induced liver injury in murine endotoxin shock. J Immunol 1997; 158: 5941–5948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE, Roth RA. Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996; 139: 213–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Xu H, Gonzalo JA, St Pierre Y,et al. Leukocytosis and resistance to septic shock in intercellular adhesion molecule 1-deficient mice. J Exp Med 1994; 180:95–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jaeschke H, Essani NA, Fisher MA, Vonderfecht SL, Farhood A, Smith CW. Release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 into bile and serum in murine endotoxin shock. Hepatology 1996; 23:530–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leist M, Gantner F, Jilg S, Wendel A. Activation of the 55 kDa TNF receptor is necessary and sufficient for TNF-induced liver failure, hepatocyte apoptosis, and nitrite release. J Immunol 1995; 154:1307–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tiegs G, Hentschel J, Wendel A. A T cell-dependent experimental liver injury in mice inducible by concanavalin A. J Clin Invest1992; 90:196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Takeda K, Hayakawa Y, Van Kaer L, Matsuda H, Yagita H, Okumura K. Critical contribution of liver natural killer T cells to a murine model of hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97:5498–5503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaneko Y, Harada M, Kawano T, et al. Augmentation of Valpha14 NKT cellmediated cytotoxicity by interleukin 4 in an autocrine mechanism resulting in the development of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. J Exp Med 2000; 191:105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gantner F, Leist M, Lohse AW, Germann PG, Tiegs G. Concanavalin Ainduced T-cell-mediated hepatic injury in mice: the role of tumor necrosis factor. Hepatology 1995; 21:190–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kusters S, Gantner F, Kunstle G, Tiegs G. Interferon gamma plays a critical role in T cell-dependent liver injury in mice initiated by concanavalin A. Gastroenterology 1996; 111:462–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wolf D, Hallmann R, Sass G, et al. TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in the liver is under the control of TNFR1 —relevance for concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. J Immunol 2001; 166:1300–1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Trautwein
    • 1
  • Alexander Koch
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and EndocrinologyUniversity HospitalAachenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and EndocrinologyUniversity Hospital AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations