Advertisement

Molecular Virology

  • Josephine Wu
  • Mona Sharaan
  • David Y. Zhang
Chapter
  • 1.8k Downloads

Abstract

Traditional viral isolation by cell culture assays and conventional serological methods have been previously used to detect and identify various virus infections

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Herpes Simplex Virus Human Papilloma Virus Avian Influenza Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested reading

  1. Alejo E. Resistance of human cytomegalovirus to antiviral drugs. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12:286–297.Google Scholar
  2. Ando Y, Terao K, Narita M, et al. Quantitative analyses of cytomegalovirus genome in aqueous humor of patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 2002;46:254–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anzola M, Burgos JJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma: molecular interactions between hepatitis C virus and p53 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003;5:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boeckh M, Boivin G. Quantitation of cytomegalovirus: methodologic aspects and clincial applications. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11:533–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowen EF, Sabin CA, Wilson P, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia detected by polymerase chain reaction identifies a group of HIV-positive patients at high risk of CMV disease. AIDS. 1997;11:889–893.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cope AV, Sabin C, Burroughs A, et al. Interrelationships among quantity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in blood, donor-recipient serostatus, and administration of methylprednisolone as risk factors for HCMV disease following liver transplantation. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;176: 1484–1490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cockerill FR, Smith TF. Response of the clinical microbiology laboratory to emerging (new) and reemerging infectious diseases. J. Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2359–2365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Comanor L, Hendricks D. Hepatitis C virus RNA tests: performance attributes and their impact on clinical utility. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2003;3:689–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cope AV, Sweny P, Sabin C, et al. Quantity of cytomegalovirus viruria is a major risk factor for cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. J. Med. Virol. 1997;52:200–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellermann-Eriksen S. Macrophages and cytokines in the early defense against herpes simplex virus. Virol J. 2005;2:1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Espy M, Uhl JR, Sloan LM, et al. Real-Time PCR in clinical microbiology: applications for routine laboratory testing. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:165–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gault E, Michel Y, Dehée A, Belabani C, et al. Quantification of human cytomegalovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001;39: 772–775.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gor D, Sabin C, Prentice HG, et al. Longitudinal fluctuation in cytomegalovirus load in bone marrow transplant patients: relationship between peak virus load, donor/recipient serostatus, acute GVHD and CMV disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1998;21:597–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kearns AM, Guiver M, James V, et al. Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of human cytomegalovirus. J. Virol. Methods. 2001;95:121–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kearns AM, Turner AJ, Eltringham GJ, et al. Rapid detection and quantification of CMV DNA in urine using LightCycler-based real-time PCR. J. Clin. Virol. 2002;24:131–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kühn JE, Wendland T, Schäfer P, et al. Monitoring of renal allograft recipients by quantitation of human cytomegalovirus genomes in peripheral blood leukocytes. J. Med. Virol. 1994;44:398–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Landry ML, Garner R, Ferguson D. Comparison of the NucliSens basic kit (nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) and the Argene Biosoft enterovirus consensus reverse transcription-PCR assays for rapid detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5006–5010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Landry ML, Garner R, Ferguson D. Real-Time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification using molecular beacons for detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3136–3139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Machida U, Kami M, Fukui T, et al. Real-time automated PCR for early diagnosis and monitoring of cytomegalovirus infection after bone marrow transplantation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000;38:2536–2542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahony JB, Richardson S. Molecular diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Molec Diagn. 2005;7:551–559.Google Scholar
  21. Moore C, Valappil M, Corden S, et al. Enhanced clinical utility of the NucliSens EasyQ RSV A+B Assay for rapid detection of respiratory syntitial virus in clinical samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006; 25:167–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Moret H, Brodard V, Barranger C., et al. New commercially available PCR and microplate hybridization assay for detection and differentiation of human polyomaviruses JC and BK in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and urine samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1305–1309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray PG, Young LS. Epstein-Barr virus infection: basis of malignancy and potential for therapy. Expert Rev Molec Med. 2001;3:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nitsche A, Steuer N, Schmidt CA, et al. Detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000;38: 2734–2737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Neville BW, Dam DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 1995.Google Scholar
  26. Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Enterovirus molecular detection and typing. Rev Med Microbiol. 2005;16:163–171.Google Scholar
  27. Podzorski RP. Molecular testing in the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C virus infection. Arch Path Lab Med. 2002;126:285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rasmussen L, Zipeto D, Wolitz RA, et al. Risk for retinitis in patients with AIDS can be assessed by quantitation of threshold levels of cytomegalovirus DNA burden in blood. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;176: 1146–1155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Russell WC. Update on adenovirus and its vectors. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2573–2604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Shinkai M, Bozzette SA, Powderly W, et al. Utility of urine and leukocyte cultures and plasma DNA polymerase chain reaction for identification of AIDS patients at risk for developing human cytomegalovirus disease. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;175:302–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Spector SA, Wong R, Hsia K, et al. Plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts CMV disease and survival in AIDS patients. J. Clin. Invest. 1998;101:497–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Taubenberger JK, Layne SP. Diagnosis of influenza virus: coming to grips with the molecular era. Mol Diagn. 2001;6:291–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tanaka N, Kimura H, Iida K, et al. Quantitative analysis of cytomegalovirus load using a real-time PCR assay. J. Med. Virol. 2000;60:455–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Toyoda M, Carlos JB, Galera OA, et al. Correlation of cytomegalovirus DNA levels with response to antiviral therapy in cardiac and renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1997;63:957–963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Whiley DM, Mackay IM, Sloots TP. Detection and differentiation of human polyomaviruses JC and BK by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4357–4361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Zaia JA, Gallez-Hawkins GM, Tegtmeier BR, et al. Late cytomegalovirus disease in marrow transplantation is predicted by virus load in plasma. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;176:782–785.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zoulim F. New nucleic acid diagnostic tests in viral hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 2006;26:309–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josephine Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mona Sharaan
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Y. Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew York
  2. 2.Mount Sinai Medical CenterNew York

Personalised recommendations