The Role of ELR+-CXC Chemokines in Wound Healing and Melanoma Biology

  • Ann Richmond
  • Jing Luan
  • Jianguo Du
  • Hamid Haghnegahdar
Part of the Contemporary Immunology book series (CONTIM)


Chemokines are small proinflammatory peptides that regulate trafficking, activation, and sometimes the proliferation of myeloid, lymphoid, melanocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells (1). The chemokines have been divided into four subfamilies based upon structure and function: the CXC, CX3C, CC, and C chemokines (2–4). The CXC chemokine family includes four MGSA/GRO melanoma growth stimulatory activity/ growth-related oncogene genes (α,β,γ,δ) as well as interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon-inducible gene (IP-10), monocyte induced by y-interferon (MIG), ENA-78, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2), neutrophil activating peptide-2, the mitogen for B-cell progenitors known as stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and others (2,5–14). The proteins encoded by these genes exhibit an NH2 terminal cysteine alignment of two cysteines separated by an intervening amino acid (CXC) (2,15–17) (see Table 1). The CXC chemokines that contain an ELR motif at the amino terminus are angiogenic (IL-8, MGSA/GRO, NAP-2, ENA-78, GCP-2), whereas those not containing this motif are angiostatic (MIG, IP-10, PF-4) (18). The murine MGSA/GRO orthologs are KC and MIP-2. The chemokine-β subfamily, noted by two adjacent cysteines (CC) at the N terminus, includes RANTES, MCP-1-3, MIP-1α and β, and numerous others (2,19). Only one γ-chemokine has been identified, lymphotactin, and this chemokine is characterized by a single conserved cysteine in the amino terminus of the protein (3). Lymphotactin is expressed in progenitor T-cells and is chemotactic for lymphocytes but not monocytes or neutrophils.


Wound Healing Melanoma Cell Chemokine Receptor Melanoma Cell Line Angiogenic Response 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Richmond
  • Jing Luan
  • Jianguo Du
  • Hamid Haghnegahdar

There are no affiliations available

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