Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Thomas P. Shanley
  • Bruce Grossman
  • Hector R. Wong


In 1967, Ashbaugh and colleagues (1) described a cohort of 12 patients who had acute onset of tachypnea, hypoxemia, panlobular infiltrates on chest radiograph, and decreased lung compliance. It was noted that this syndrome was similar to the infant respiratory distress syndrome, and in 1971 these same investigators coined the term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2). Since that time, it has been noted that this same condition also occurs in children, and consequently it was renamed acute respiratory distress syndrome. In 1988, Murray and colleagues (3) defined ARDS via the lung injury score (LIS) based on the chest radiographic findings, the degree of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 ratio), the level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and the lung compliance (Table 1). The American-European Consensus Committee (A-ECC) was formed in 1994 to develop a universal definition of ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI). The definition, outlined in Table 2, included the acute nature of the disease process, oxygenation abnormalities, radiographic findings, and the exclusion of left atrial hypertension when measured, but did not include PEEP, as in the LIS (4). This definition recognizes ARDS as the most severe manifestation of ALI.


Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute Lung Injury Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respir Crit Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas P. Shanley
  • Bruce Grossman
  • Hector R. Wong

There are no affiliations available

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