Cytokine Responses in Patients with Pneumonia

  • Peter Kragsbjerg
  • Hans Holmberg
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)


The importance of proinflammatory cytokines was first appreciated in studies of patients with sepsis or septic shock, but during the 1990s, the research expanded to include a wide range of infectious and other inflammatory conditions. The first investigations of the role of cytokines in lower-respiratory-tract infections were published in 1992. Since then, clinical studies have been performed on different aspects of inflammation in pneumonia. One group of studies focuses on the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia. A second group studies the relation between the microbial etiology of pneumonia and the ensuing inflammatory response. A third group relates the cytokine response in bacterial pneumonia to severity [i.e., SIRS (1), APACHE II (2), or other clinical scoring systems]. A fourth group of studies investigates the role of age in relation to the inflammatory response caused by an acute bacterial pneumonia. Finally, in a few studies, the impact of immunomodulating therapy has been investigated.


Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Cytokine Response Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Bacterial Pneumonia Chlamydia Pneumonia 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Kragsbjerg
  • Hans Holmberg

There are no affiliations available

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