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Challenges, Opportunities and Theoretical Epidemiology

  • Fred Brauer
  • Carlos Castillo-Chavez
  • Zhilan Feng
Chapter
Part of the Texts in Applied Mathematics book series (TAM, volume 69)

Abstract

Lessons learned from the HIV pandemic, SARS in 2003, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, and the ongoing Zika outbreaks in the Americas can be framed under a public health policy model that responds after the fact. Responses often come through reallocation of resources from one disease control effort to a new pressing need. The operating models of preparedness and response are ill-equipped to prevent or ameliorate disease emergence or reemergence at global scales. Epidemiological challenges that are a threat to the economic stability of many regions of the world, particularly those depending on travel and trade, remain at the forefront of the Global Commons. Consequently, efforts to quantify the impact of mobility and trade on disease dynamics have dominated the interests of theoreticians for some time. Our experience includes an H1N1 influenza pandemic crisscrossing the world during 2009 and 2010, the 2014 Ebola outbreaks, limited to regions of West Africa lacking appropriate medical facilities, health infrastructure, and sufficient levels of preparedness and education, and the expanding Zika outbreaks, moving expeditiously across habitats suitable for Aedes aegypti. These provide opportunities to quantify the impact of disease emergence or reemergence on the decisions that individuals take in response to real or perceived disease risks. The case of SARS 2003 in 2003, the efforts to reduce the burden of H1N1 influenza cases in 2009, and the challenges faced in reducing the number of Ebola cases in 2014 are the three recent scenarios that required a timely global response. Studies addressing the impact of centralized sources of information, the impact of information along social connections, or the role of past disease outbreak experiences on the risk-aversion decisions that individuals undertake may help identify and quantify the role of human responses to disease dynamics while recognizing the importance of assessing the timing of disease emergence and reemergence. The co-evolving human responses to disease dynamics are prototypical of the feedbacks that define complex adaptive systems. In short, we live in a socioepisphere being reshaped by ecoepidemiology in the “Era of Information.”

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred Brauer
    • 1
  • Carlos Castillo-Chavez
    • 2
  • Zhilan Feng
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Mathematical and Computational Modeling Center (MCMSC), Department of Mathematics and StatisticsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of MathematicsPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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