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Antimycobacterial Consideration in Transplantation Including Drug Non-susceptibility and Resistance: Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

  • Julie V. Philley
  • David E. GriffithEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Mycobacterial disease is commonly encountered during transplant evaluations and can be a major source of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. The impact of TB and NTM around the world has gained increased awareness, and the global impact of disease varies from country to country thus making mycobacterial epidemiology an important aspect of disease management. Risk factors for both tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) must be assessed by transplant providers, and a low index of suspicion should warrant a prompt and accurate work-up to identify disease. Evaluation for active and latent TB is necessary prior to transplant. Preventing drug resistance for both TB and NTM plays a critical role in treatment options and outcomes. Adequate laboratory services are an essential component of drug regimens and often require reference laboratory assistance. Treatment regimens for mycobacterial disease require multiple antibiotics and frequently are associated with a host of drug-drug interactions. Knowledge of mycobacterial disease diagnosis, treatment regimens, and susceptibility patterns are essential to transplant evaluation and success.

Keywords

Tuberculosis TB MTB Nontuberculous NTM Mycobacteria Mycobacterium Transplant Solid organ Latent 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineTylerUSA
  2. 2.University of Texas Health Science CenterTylerUSA
  3. 3.Heartland National TB CenterTylerUSA

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