Diagnosis of Systemic Fungal Diseases

  • Simon Frédéric DufresneEmail author
  • Kieren A. Marr
  • Shmuel Shoham


Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The most common IFI are candidiasis, aspergillosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, mucormycosis, and endemic mycoses. Clinical presentations are generally non-specific, and fungal etiologies are often suspected when immunocompromised patients present with respiratory symptoms and/or undifferentiated fever that do not respond to empiric antibacterial therapy. Moreover, early treatment can be lifesaving. Consequently, diagnosis is a cornerstone for management of such patients, and rapid, accurate, and safe diagnostic techniques are critically important. Multiple diagnostic tools are available to clinicians. In addition to microscopy and culture, serodiagnosis and nucleic acid amplification techniques are emerging. Traditional and nontraditional methods are complementary, and judicious selection of tests in a given clinical setting is essential. This chapter reviews the diagnostic methods used in medical mycology and provides guidance to clinicians and laboratorians dealing with IFI in the transplant population.


Invasive fungal infections Diagnosis Culture Antigen Nucleic acid amplification technique Galactomannan Beta-D-glucan Aspergillosis Candidiasis Endemic mycoses 



This work was partly supported by the National Institute of Health grant K24 (AI085118, to K.A.M.).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Frédéric Dufresne
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kieren A. Marr
    • 2
  • Shmuel Shoham
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Montreal, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical MicrobiologyMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesBaltimoreUSA

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