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Rare and Emerging Viral Infections in the Transplant Population

  • Susanna K. TanEmail author
  • Jesse J. Waggoner
  • Stan Deresinski
Chapter

Abstract

Viral infections account for a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases, and the agents included in this group consist of recently identified viruses as well as previously identified viruses with an apparent increase in disease incidence. In transplant recipients, this group can include viruses with no recognized pathogenicity in immunocompetent patients and those that result in atypical or more severe disease presentations in the immunocompromised host. In this chapter, we begin by discussing viral diagnostics and techniques used for viral discovery, specifically as they apply to emerging and rare infections in this patient population. Focus then shifts to specific emerging and re-emerging viruses in the transplant population, including human T-cell leukemia virus 1, rabies, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, human bocavirus, parvovirus 4, measles, mumps, orf, and dengue. We have also included a brief discussion on emerging viruses and virus families with few or no reported cases in transplant recipients: monkeypox, nipah and hendra, chikungunya and other alphaviruses, hantavirus and the Bunyaviridae, and filoviruses. Finally, concerns regarding infectious disease complications in xenotransplantation and the reporting of rare viral infections are addressed. With the marked increase in the number of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplants performed worldwide, we expect a corresponding rise in the reports of emerging viral infections in transplant hosts, both from known viruses and those yet to be identified.

Keywords

Emerging infections Immunocompromised host Viral discovery 

List of Abbreviations

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

APMV-1

Avian paramyxovirus 1

ATL

Adult T-cell leukemia

CDC

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cDNA

Complementary DNA

CHIKV

Chikungunya virus

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DENV

Dengue virus

DF

Dengue fever

DFA

Direct fluorescent antibody

DHF

Dengue hemorrhagic fever

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DSS

Dengue shock syndrome

FLAIR

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery

GVHD

Graft-versus-host disease

HAM

HTLV-associated myelopathy

HBoV

Human bocavirus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HEV

Hepatitis E virus

HFRS

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

HHV-8

Human herpes virus 8

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

hMPV

Human metapneumovirus

HPS

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

HSCT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant

HTLV-1

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1

HYSV

Huaiyangshan virus

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

IV

Intravenous

IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulin

JEV

Japanese encephalitis virus

LCMV

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

MDMA

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)

MMLV

Moloney murine leukemia virus

MMR

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine

NP

Nasopharyngeal

OPO

Organ procurement organization

OPTN

US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

PARV4

Parvovirus 4

PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cell

PCMV

Porcine cytomegalovirus

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PEP

Postexposure prophylaxis

PERV

Porcine endogenous retrovirus

PLHV

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

RDA

Representation difference analysis

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

RT-PCR

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

RVFV

Rift Valley fever virus

SARS

Severe adult respiratory syndrome

SFTSV

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus

SISPA

Sequence-independent single-primer amplification

SME

Subacute measles encephalitis

SOT

Solid organ transplant

TBEV

Tick-borne encephalitis virus

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TTV

Torque teno virus

USUV

Usutu virus

WNV

West Nile virus

XMRV

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

YFV

Yellow fever virus

ZIKV

Zika virus

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna K. Tan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jesse J. Waggoner
    • 2
  • Stan Deresinski
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesAtlantaUSA

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