Rare and Emerging Viral Infections in the Transplant Population

  • Susanna K. TanEmail author
  • Jesse J. Waggoner
  • Stan Deresinski


Viral infections account for a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases, and the agents included in this group consist of recently identified viruses as well as previously identified viruses with an apparent increase in disease incidence. In transplant recipients, this group can include viruses with no recognized pathogenicity in immunocompetent patients and those that result in atypical or more severe disease presentations in the immunocompromised host. In this chapter, we begin by discussing viral diagnostics and techniques used for viral discovery, specifically as they apply to emerging and rare infections in this patient population. Focus then shifts to specific emerging and re-emerging viruses in the transplant population, including human T-cell leukemia virus 1, rabies, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, human bocavirus, parvovirus 4, measles, mumps, orf, and dengue. We have also included a brief discussion on emerging viruses and virus families with few or no reported cases in transplant recipients: monkeypox, nipah and hendra, chikungunya and other alphaviruses, hantavirus and the Bunyaviridae, and filoviruses. Finally, concerns regarding infectious disease complications in xenotransplantation and the reporting of rare viral infections are addressed. With the marked increase in the number of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplants performed worldwide, we expect a corresponding rise in the reports of emerging viral infections in transplant hosts, both from known viruses and those yet to be identified.


Emerging infections Immunocompromised host Viral discovery 

List of Abbreviations


Acquired immune deficiency syndrome


Avian paramyxovirus 1


Adult T-cell leukemia


US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Complementary DNA


Chikungunya virus




Cerebrospinal fluid


Dengue virus


Dengue fever


Direct fluorescent antibody


Dengue hemorrhagic fever


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Dengue shock syndrome


Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery


Graft-versus-host disease


HTLV-associated myelopathy


Human bocavirus


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatitis E virus


Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome


Human herpes virus 8


Human immunodeficiency virus


Human metapneumovirus


Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome


Hematopoietic stem cell transplant


Human T-cell leukemia virus 1


Huaiyangshan virus








Intravenous immunoglobulin


Japanese encephalitis virus


Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus


3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)


Moloney murine leukemia virus


Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine




Organ procurement organization


US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network


Parvovirus 4


Peripheral blood mononuclear cell


Porcine cytomegalovirus


Polymerase chain reaction


Postexposure prophylaxis


Porcine endogenous retrovirus


Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus


Representation difference analysis


Ribonucleic acid


Respiratory syncytial virus


Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Rift Valley fever virus


Severe adult respiratory syndrome


Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus


Sequence-independent single-primer amplification


Subacute measles encephalitis


Solid organ transplant


Tick-borne encephalitis virus


Tumor necrosis factor


Torque teno virus


Usutu virus


West Nile virus


Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus


Yellow fever virus


Zika virus


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna K. Tan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jesse J. Waggoner
    • 2
  • Stan Deresinski
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesAtlantaUSA

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