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West Nile Virus in Immunocompromised Hosts

  • Dora Y. HoEmail author
  • Joanna M. D. Schaenman
  • Lindsey R. Baden
Chapter

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen endemic in Africa and Europe. Recent events demonstrate the speed with which a vector-borne disease like WNV can disseminate when introduced into a susceptible, pathogen-naïve population, where competent reservoir and vectors are present. Since the arrival of WNV to the North American continent in 1999, it is estimated that 2–4 million people have been infected in the USA alone. It has special relevance to the immunocompromised host populations because of the possibility of WNV transmission through organ transplantation and the increased risk of neuroinvasive disease in immunocompromised patients. In this chapter a detailed discussion of WNV infection with a focus in transplant population is presented.

Keywords

West Nile virus Solid Organ Transplantation Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Immunocompromised Hosts Meningitis Encephalitis Acute Flaccid Paralysis 

Abbreviations

AFP

Acute flaccid paralysis

CDC

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

HSCT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

IFN

Interferon

IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulin

MAC-ELISA

IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

NAAT

Nucleic acid amplification testing

PRNT

Plaque reduction neutralization test

SOT

Solid organ transplantation

TLR

Toll-like receptor

WNE

West Nile encephalitis

WNF

West Nile fever

WNND

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease

WNV

West Nile virus

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dora Y. Ho
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joanna M. D. Schaenman
    • 2
  • Lindsey R. Baden
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Division of Infectious DiseasesBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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