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Enterovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts

  • Joanna M. D. SchaenmanEmail author
  • Dora Y. Ho
  • Lindsey R. Baden
  • Amar Safdar
Chapter

Abstract

The Enteroviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family notable for their ability to cause a wide range of diseases, with more severe disease manifestations in the immunocompromised host. Humans are the reservoir for Enteroviridae, and person-to-person transmission occurs via the fecal-oral or respiratory route. Intact innate immune response including NK cells and macrophages plays an important role during the initial phase of infection followed by T- and B-cell adaptive immunity, which is central in effective viral clearance. Enteroviral infections peak in the summer and fall months. Poliovirus classically causes a paralytic poliomyelitis with weakness and paralysis. Other enteroviral diseases include upper respiratory infections, HFMD, herpangina, myositis, myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, as well as a flaccid paralysis similar to poliovirus infection. Patients with B-cell immune defects including agammaglobulinemia are susceptible to chronic enterovirus infections including chronic meningoencephalitis. Patients undergoing HSCT may develop potentially life-threatening gastroenteritis and viral pneumonitis. No antiviral therapy is currently available; IVIG therapy is suggested for patients with enteroviral myocarditis and encephalitis. A comprehensive review of enteroviral illness is presented in the transplant population.

Keywords

Poliovirus Non-poliovirus Enterovirus Immunocompromised hosts Coxsackievirus Enterovirus 71 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna M. D. Schaenman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dora Y. Ho
    • 2
  • Lindsey R. Baden
    • 3
  • Amar Safdar
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseasesDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Division of Infectious DiseasesBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of MedicineEl PasoUSA

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