Invasive Fungal Disease in the Transplant Population: An Overview

  • Jennifer L. SaulloEmail author
  • John R. Perfect
  • Barbara D. Alexander


There are numerous fungal pathogens which merit consideration in the hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplant recipients including yeasts, filamentous molds, and endemic fungi. Important differences in the incidence, types, and timeline of infections exist among the differing transplant groups. The overall risk of invasive fungal infection is affected by a multitude of factors including the transplant donor and recipient as well as transplant type. These considerations guide the implementation of prophylactic strategies and assist in targeting those at highest risk of fungal disease.


Fungal Infections Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Solid Organ Transplant Epidemiology Aspergillus Candida Mucormycosis Cryptococcus Endemic Mycoses Fungal Prophylaxis Immunocompromised 







Amphotericin B deoxycholate


Amphotericin B lipid complex


Acute myelogenous leukemia


American Society of Transplantation


Cumulative incidence




Calcineurin inhibitor


Central nervous system


Graft-versus-host disease


Hematopoietic cell transplant


Invasive aspergillosis


Invasive candidiasis


Infectious Diseases Society of America


Invasive fungal infection


Immune reconstitution syndrome


Liposomal amphotericin B


Myelodysplastic syndrome


Mismatched-related donor


Matched-related donor


Mammalian target of rapamycin


Multivisceral transplant


Orthotopic heart transplant


Orthotopic liver transplant


Prospective antifungal therapy


Small bowel transplant


Solid organ transplant


Toll-like receptor


Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network


Unrelated donor


Urinary tract infection


  1. 1.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. The fungi. In: Medical mycology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huprikar S, Shoham S. Emerging fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):262–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walsh TJ, Groll AH. Emerging fungal pathogens: evolving challenges to immunocompromised patients for the twenty-first century. Transpl Infect Dis. 1999;1(4):247–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pappas PG, Alexander BD, Andes DR, Hadley S, Kauffman CA, Freifeld A, et al. Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(8):1101–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Park BJ, Alexander BD, Anaissie EJ, Walsh TJ, et al. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001-2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(8):1091–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, Clancy CJ, Marr KA, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(4):e1–50.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pfaller M, Neofytos D, Diekema D, Azie N, Meier-Kriesche HU, Quan SP, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 3648 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy (PATH Alliance®) registry, 2004-2008. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;74(4):323–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Husain S, Tollemar J, Dominguez EA, Baumgarten K, Humar A, Paterson DL, et al. Changes in the spectrum and risk factors for invasive candidiasis in liver transplant recipients: prospective, multicenter, case-controlled study. Transplantation. 2003;75(12):2023–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pfaller MA, Moet GJ, Messer SA, Jones RN, Castanheira M. Candida bloodstream infections: comparison of species distributions and antifungal resistance patterns in community-onset and nosocomial isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2008-2009. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(2):561–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Byrnes EJ 3rd, Bartlett KH, Perfect JR, Heitman J. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals. Microbes Infect. 2011;13(11):895–907.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell DH, Sorrell TC, Allworth AM, Heath CH, McGregor AR, Papanaoum K, et al. Cryptococcal disease of the CNS in immunocompetent hosts: influence of cryptococcal variety on clinical manifestations and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(3):611–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, Goldman DL, Graybill JR, Hamill RJ, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(3):291–322.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alexander BD, Schell WA. Hyalohyphomycosis. In: Kaufmann CA, Mandell GL, editors. Atlas of fungal infections. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Springer Publishing; 2006.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu K, Howell DN, Perfect JR, Schell WA. Morphologic criteria for the preliminary identification of Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Acremonium species by histopathology. Am J Clin Pathol. 1998;109(1):45–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacobson ES. Pathogenic roles for fungal melanins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13(4):708–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Revankar SG. Phaeohyphomycosis. In: Kaufmann CA, Mandell GL, editors. Atlas of fungal infections. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Springer Publishing; 2006.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCarty TP, Baddley JW, Walsh TJ, Alexander BD, Kontoyiannis DP, Perl TM, et al. Phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients: Results from the Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Med Mycol. 2015;53(5):440–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kwon-Chung KJ. Taxonomy of fungi causing mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis (zygomycosis) and nomenclature of the disease: molecular mycologic perspectives. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(Suppl 1):S8–S15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neofytos D, Horn D, Anaissie E, Steinbach W, Olyaei A, Fishman J, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of Multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(3):265–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neofytos D, Fishman JA, Horn D, Anaissie E, Chang CH, Olyaei A, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12(3):220–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petrikkos G, Skiada A, Lortholary O, Roilides E, Walsh TJ, Kontoyiannis DP. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(Suppl 1):S23–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, Knudsen TA, Sarkisova TA, Schaufele RL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(5):634–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kauffman CA, Freifeld AG, Andes DR, Baddley JW, Herwaldt L, Walker RC, et al. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Transpl Infect Dis. 2014;16(2):213–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cuellar-Rodriguez J, Avery RK, Lard M, Budev M, Gordon SM, Shrestha NK, et al. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(5):710–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tripathy U, Yung GL, Kriett JM, Thistlethwaite PA, Kapelanski DP, Jamieson SW. Donor transfer of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(1):306–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wright PW, Pappagianis D, Wilson M, Louro A, Moser SA, Komatsu K, et al. Donor-related coccidioidomycosis in organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(9):1265–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun HY, Singh N. Opportunistic infection-associated immune reconstitution syndrome in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(2):168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baddley JW, Forrest GN. Cryptococcosis in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):242–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Singh N, Lortholary O, Alexander BD, Gupta KL, John GT, Pursell K, et al. Allograft loss in renal transplant recipients with cryptococcus neoformans associated immune reconstitution syndrome. Transplantation. 2005;80(8):1131–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sun HY, Alexander BD, Huprikar S, Forrest GN, Bruno D, Lyon GM, et al. Predictors of immune reconstitution syndrome in organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis: implications for the management of immunosuppression. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(1):36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ascioglu S, Rex JH, de Pauw B, Bennett JE, Bille J, Crokaert F, et al. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(1):7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, Stevens DA, Edwards JE, Calandra T, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(12):1813–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Park BJ, Pappas PG, Wannemuehler KA, Alexander BD, Anaissie EJ, Andes DR, et al. Invasive non-Aspergillus mold infections in transplant recipients, United States, 2001-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1855–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Garcia-Vidal C, Upton A, Kirby KA, Marr KA. Epidemiology of invasive mold infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: biological risk factors for infection according to time after transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(8):1041–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Boeckh M, Martin P, Corey L. Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors. Blood. 2002;100(13):4358–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van Burik JA, Carter SL, Freifeld AG, High KP, Godder KT, Papanicolaou GA, et al. Higher risk of cytomegalovirus and aspergillus infections in recipients of T cell-depleted unrelated bone marrow: analysis of infectious complications in patients treated with T cell depletion versus immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13(12):1487–98.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Labbe AC, Su SH, Laverdiere M, Pepin J, Patino C, Cohen S, et al. High incidence of invasive aspergillosis associated with intestinal graft-versus-host disease following nonmyeloablative transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13(10):1192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ben-Ami R, Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP. Invasive mould infections in the setting of hematopoietic cell transplantation: current trends and new challenges. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22(4):376–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mihu CN, King E, Yossepovitch O, Taur Y, Jakubowski A, Pamer E, et al. Risk factors and attributable mortality of late aspergillosis after T-cell depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10(3):162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bow EJ. Invasive fungal infection in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: epidemiology from the transplant physician’s viewpoint. Mycopathologia. 2009;168(6):283–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pagano L, Caira M, Nosari A, Van Lint MT, Candoni A, Offidani M, et al. Fungal infections in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants: results of the SEIFEM B-2004 study--Sorveglianza Epidemiologica Infezioni Fungine Nelle Emopatie Maligne. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(9):1161–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baddley JW, Stroud TP, Salzman D, Pappas PG. Invasive mold infections in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(9):1319–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marr KA. Fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Med Mycol. 2008;46(4):293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sipsas NV, Lewis RE, Tarrand J, Hachem R, Rolston KV, Raad II, et al. Candidemia in patients with hematologic malignancies in the era of new antifungal agents (2001-2007): stable incidence but changing epidemiology of a still frequently lethal infection. Cancer. 2009;115(20):4745–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodman JL, Winston DJ, Greenfield RA, Chandrasekar PH, Fox B, Kaizer H, et al. A controlled trial of fluconazole to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1992;326(13):845–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marr KA, Seidel K, White TC, Bowden RA. Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J Infect Dis. 2000;181(1):309–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Marr KA. The changing spectrum of candidemia in oncology patients: therapeutic implications. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2000;13(6):615–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    van Burik JH, Leisenring W, Myerson D, Hackman RC, Shulman HM, Sale GE, et al. The effect of prophylactic fluconazole on the clinical spectrum of fungal diseases in bone marrow transplant recipients with special attention to hepatic candidiasis. An autopsy study of 355 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 1998;77(4):246–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wingard JR. Importance of Candida species other than C. albicans as pathogens in oncology patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(1):115–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pfaller MA, Castanheira M, Lockhart SR, Ahlquist AM, Messer SA, Jones RN. Frequency of decreased susceptibility and resistance to echinocandins among fluconazole-resistant bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(4):1199–203.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Latge JP. Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12(2):310–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hachem RY, Kontoyiannis DP, Boktour MR, Afif C, Cooksley C, Bodey GP, et al. Aspergillus terreus: an emerging amphotericin B-resistant opportunistic mold in patients with hematologic malignancies. Cancer. 2004;101(7):1594–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nucci M, Marr KA. Emerging fungal diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(4):521–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Steinbach WJ, Benjamin DK Jr, Kontoyiannis DP, Perfect JR, Lutsar I, Marr KA, et al. Infections due to Aspergillus terreus: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 83 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(2):192–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singh N, Paterson DL. Aspergillus infections in transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18(1):44–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tang TC, Chuang WY. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in allogeneic stem cell transplanted recipient. Eur J Haematol. 2012;88(2):183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tasci S, Glasmacher A, Lentini S, Tschubel K, Ewig S, Molitor E, et al. Pseudomembranous and obstructive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis - optimal diagnostic strategy and outcome. Mycoses. 2006;49(1):37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miceli MH, Maertens J, Buve K, Grazziutti M, Woods G, Rahman M, et al. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in cancer patients with pulmonary aspergillosis recovering from neutropenia: proof of principle, description, and clinical and research implications. Cancer. 2007;110(1):112–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(7):909–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Wessel VC, Bodey GP, Rolston KV. Zygomycosis in the 1990s in a tertiary-care cancer center. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(6):851–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Lionakis MS, Lewis RE, Chamilos G, Healy M, Perego C, et al. Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case-control observational study of 27 recent cases. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(8):1350–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Trifilio SM, Bennett CL, Yarnold PR, McKoy JM, Parada J, Mehta J, et al. Breakthrough zygomycosis after voriconazole administration among patients with hematologic malignancies who receive hematopoietic stem-cell transplants or intensive chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39(7):425–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trifilio S, Singhal S, Williams S, Frankfurt O, Gordon L, Evens A, et al. Breakthrough fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients on prophylactic voriconazole. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40(5):451–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Imhof A, Balajee SA, Fredricks DN, Englund JA, Marr KA. Breakthrough fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(5):743–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marty FM, Cosimi LA, Baden LR. Breakthrough zygomycosis after voriconazole treatment in recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(9):950–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Siwek GT, Dodgson KJ, de Magalhaes-Silverman M, Bartelt LA, Kilborn SB, Hoth PL, et al. Invasive zygomycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(4):584–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lerolle N, Raffoux E, Socie G, Touratier S, Sauvageon H, Porcher R, et al. Breakthrough invasive fungal disease in patients receiving posaconazole primary prophylaxis: a 4-year study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(11):952–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kang SH, Kim HS, Bae MN, Kim J, Yoo JY, Lee KY, et al. Fatal breakthrough Mucormycosis in an Acute Myelogenous Leukemia patient while on Posaconazole Prophylaxis. Infect Chemother. 2015;47(1):49–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lekakis LJ, Lawson A, Prante J, Ribes J, Davis GJ, Monohan G, et al. Fatal rhizopus pneumonia in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients despite posaconazole prophylaxis: two cases and review of the literature. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009;15(8):991–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nucci M, Marr KA, Queiroz-Telles F, Martins CA, Trabasso P, Costa S, et al. Fusarium infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(9):1237–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Husain S, Munoz P, Forrest G, Alexander BD, Somani J, Brennan K, et al. Infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans in transplant recipients: clinical characteristics and impact of antifungal agent therapy on outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(1):89–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lackner M, Sybren de Hoog G, Yang L, Moreno L, Ahmed S, Lopes L, et al. Proposed nomenclature for Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium and related genera. Fungal Divers. 2014;67:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Peterson MW, Pratt AD, Nugent KM. Pneumonia due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Thorax. 1987;42(9):698–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Walsh TJ, Catchatourian R, Cohen H. Disseminated histoplasmosis complicating bone marrow transplantation. Am J Clin Pathol. 1983;79(4):509–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morrison VA, Haake RJ, Weisdorf DJ. The spectrum of non-Candida fungal infections following bone marrow transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore). 1993;72(2):78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Torres HA, Rivero GA, Kontoyiannis DP. Endemic mycoses in a cancer hospital. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002;81(3):201–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jones O, Cleveland KO, Gelfand MS. A case of disseminated histoplasmosis following autologous stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma: an initial misdiagnosis with a false-positive serum galactomannan assay. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11(3):281–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vail GM, Young RS, Wheat LJ, Filo RS, Cornetta K, Goldman M. Incidence of histoplasmosis following allogeneic bone marrow transplant or solid organ transplant in a hyperendemic area. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002;4(3):148–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Haydoura S, Wallentine J, Lopansri B, Ford CD, Saad D, Burke JP. Disseminated histoplasmosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant: a diagnosis not to be missed. Transpl Infect Dis. 2014;16(5):822–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Glenn TJ, Blair JE, Adams RH. Coccidioidomycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Med Mycol. 2005;43(8):705–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Riley DK, Galgiani JN, O'Donnell MR, Ito JI, Beatty PG, Evans TG. Coccidioidomycosis in bone marrow transplant recipients. Transplantation. 1993;56(6):1531–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Blair JE. Coccidioidomycosis in patients who have undergone transplantation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1111:365–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blair JE, Smilack JD, Caples SM. Coccidioidomycosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(1):113–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Serody JS, Mill MR, Detterbeck FC, Harris DT, Cohen MS. Blastomycosis in transplant recipients: report of a case and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16(1):54–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen SC, Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP. Direct effects of non-antifungal agents used in cancer chemotherapy and organ transplantation on the development and virulence of Candida and Aspergillus species. Virulence. 2011;2(4):280–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Meyers JD. Fungal infections in bone marrow transplant patients. Semin Oncol. 1990;17(3 Suppl 6):10–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wald A, Leisenring W, van Burik JA, Bowden RA. Epidemiology of Aspergillus infections in a large cohort of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis. 1997;175(6):1459–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jantunen E, Ruutu P, Niskanen L, Volin L, Parkkali T, Koukila-Kahkola P, et al. Incidence and risk factors for invasive fungal infections in allogeneic BMT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997;19(8):801–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kesh S, Mensah NY, Peterlongo P, Jaffe D, Hsu K, M VDB, et al. TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1062:95–103.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bochud PY, Chien JW, Marr KA, Leisenring WM, Upton A, Janer M, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(17):1766–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Seo KW, Kim DH, Sohn SK, Lee NY, Chang HH, Kim SW, et al. Protective role of interleukin-10 promoter gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36(12):1089–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sainz J, Hassan L, Perez E, Romero A, Moratalla A, Lopez-Fernandez E, et al. Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism as risk factor to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunol Lett. 2007;109(1):76–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sainz J, Perez E, Hassan L, Moratalla A, Romero A, Collado MD, et al. Variable number of tandem repeats of TNF receptor type 2 promoter as genetic biomarker of susceptibility to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Hum Immunol. 2007;68(1):41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mezger M, Steffens M, Beyer M, Manger C, Eberle J, Toliat MR, et al. Polymorphisms in the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 are associated with invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and influence CXCL10 expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Blood. 2008;111(2):534–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zaas AK, Liao G, Chien JW, Weinberg C, Shore D, Giles SS, et al. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis. PLoS Genet. 2008;4(6):e1000101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mezger M, Einsele H, Loeffler J. Genetic susceptibility to infections with Aspergillus fumigatus. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2010;36(2):168–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pana ZD, Farmaki E, Roilides E. Host genetics and opportunistic fungal infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(12):1254–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wójtowicz A, Bochud PY. Host genetics of invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections. Semin Immunopathol. 2015;37(2):173–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Maskarinec SA, Johnson MD, Perfect JR. Genetic susceptibility to fungal infections: what is in the genes? Curr Clin Microbiol Rep. 2016;3(2):81–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Maertens J, Demuynck H, Verbeken EK, Zachee P, Verhoef GE, Vandenberghe P, et al. Mucormycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: report of five cases and review of the role of iron overload in the pathogenesis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999;24(3):307–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Miceli MH, Dong L, Grazziutti ML, Fassas A, Thertulien R, Van Rhee F, et al. Iron overload is a major risk factor for severe infection after autologous stem cell transplantation: a study of 367 myeloma patients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006;37(9):857–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Offner F, Cordonnier C, Ljungman P, Prentice HG, Engelhard D, De Bacquer D, et al. Impact of previous aspergillosis on the outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26(5):1098–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Robertson MJ, Larson RA. Recurrent fungal pneumonias in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia undergoing multiple courses of intensive chemotherapy. Am J Med. 1988;84(2):233–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cordonnier C, Beaune J, Offner F, Marinus A, Ljungman P, Meunier F. Aspergillosis prior to bone marrow transplantation. Infectious Diseases Working Party of the EBMT and the EORTC Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995;16(2):323–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hill BT, Kondapalli L, Artz A, Smith S, Rich E, Godley L, et al. Successful allogeneic transplantation of patients with suspected prior invasive mold infection. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48(9):1799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Aki ZS, Sucak GT, Yegin ZA, Guzel O, Erbas G, Senol E. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with active fungal infection: not a contraindication for transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2008;40(5):1579–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Richard C, Romon I, Baro J, Insunza A, Loyola I, Zurbano F, et al. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis prior to BMT in acute leukemia patients does not predict a poor outcome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1993;12(3):237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Michailov G, Laporte JP, Lesage S, Fouillard L, Isnard F, Noel-Walter MP, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation is feasible in patients with a prior history of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996;17(4):569–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Singhal S, Safdar A, Chiang KY, Godder K, van Rhee F, Garner F, et al. Non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation ('microallograft') for refractory myeloma after two preceding autografts: feasibility and efficacy in a patient with active aspergillosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;26(11):1231–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hermann S, Klein SA, Jacobi V, Thalhammer A, Bialleck H, Duchscherer M, et al. Older patients with high-risk fungal infections can be successfully allografted using non-myeloablative conditioning in combination with intensified supportive care regimens. Br J Haematol. 2001;113(2):446–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Eibl M, Auner HW, Zinke-Cerwenka W, Sill H, Dornbusch HJ, Linkesch W. High-risk AML complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis: successful treatment with nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and long-term administration of voriconazole. Ann Hematol. 2004;83(2):133–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Martino R, Nomdedeu J, Altes A, Sureda A, Brunet S, Martinez C, et al. Successful bone marrow transplantation in patients with previous invasive fungal infections: report of four cases. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1994;13(3):265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Liu M, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhao X, Zhai B, Zhang Q, et al. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis in hematological malignancy patients with previous invasive fungal disease: a retrospective analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115461.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Georgiadou SP, Lewis RE, Best L, Torres HA, Champlin RE, Kontoyiannis DP. The impact of prior invasive mold infections in leukemia patients who undergo allo-SCT in the era of triazole-based secondary prophylaxis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013 Jan;48(1):141–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ochs L, Shu XO, Miller J, Enright H, Wagner J, Filipovich A, et al. Late infections after allogeneic bone marrow transplantations: comparison of incidence in related and unrelated donor transplant recipients. Blood. 1995;86(10):3979–86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Storek J, Dawson MA, Storer B, Stevens-Ayers T, Maloney DG, Marr KA, et al. Immune reconstitution after allogeneic marrow transplantation compared with blood stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2001;97(11):3380–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Powles R, Mehta J, Kulkarni S, Treleaven J, Millar B, Marsden J, et al. Allogeneic blood and bone-marrow stem-cell transplantation in haematological malignant diseases: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000;355(9211):1231–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Parody R, Martino R, Rovira M, Vazquez L, Vazquez MJ, de la Camara R, et al. Severe infections after unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adults: comparison of cord blood transplantation with peripheral blood and bone marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12(7):734–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Saavedra S, Sanz GF, Jarque I, Moscardo F, Jimenez C, Lorenzo I, et al. Early infections in adult patients undergoing unrelated donor cord blood transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;30(12):937–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Crippa F, Holmberg L, Carter RA, Hooper H, Marr KA, Bensinger W, et al. Infectious complications after autologous CD34-selected peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002;8(5):281–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Martino R, Subira M, Rovira M, Solano C, Vazquez L, Sanz GF, et al. Invasive fungal infections after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: incidence and risk factors in 395 patients. Br J Haematol. 2002;116(2):475–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Junghanss C, Marr KA, Carter RA, Sandmaier BM, Maris MB, Maloney DG, et al. Incidence and outcome of bacterial and fungal infections following nonmyeloablative compared with myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a matched control study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002;8(9):512–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hagen EA, Stern H, Porter D, Duffy K, Foley K, Luger S, et al. High rate of invasive fungal infections following nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(1):9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fukuda T, Boeckh M, Carter RA, Sandmaier BM, Maris MB, Maloney DG, et al. Risks and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants after nonmyeloablative conditioning. Blood. 2003;102(3):827–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sayer HG, Longton G, Bowden R, Pepe M, Storb R. Increased risk of infection in marrow transplant patients receiving methylprednisolone for graft-versus-host disease prevention. Blood. 1994;84(4):1328–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Marty FM, Lee SJ, Fahey MM, Alyea EP, Soiffer RJ, Antin JH, et al. Infliximab use in patients with severe graft-versus-host disease and other emerging risk factors of non-Candida invasive fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a cohort study. Blood. 2003;102(8):2768–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mackall C, Fry T, Gress R, Peggs K, Storek J, Toubert A. Background to hematopoietic cell transplantation, including post transplant immune recovery. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;44(8):457–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Low CY, Rotstein C. Emerging fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. F1000 Med Rep. 2011;3:14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Pinto PS. The CT Halo Sign. Radiology. 2004;230(1):109–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Marr KA, Balajee SA, McLaughlin L, Tabouret M, Bentsen C, Walsh TJ. Detection of galactomannan antigenemia by enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: variables that affect performance. J Infect Dis. 2004;190(3):641–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Corzo-León DE, Satlin MJ, Soave R, Shore TB, Schuetz AN, Jacobs SE, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in the era of antifungal prophylaxis: a single-centre study with focus on emerging pathogens. Mycoses. 2015;58(6):325–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Karchmer AW, Samore MH, Hadley S, Collins LA, Jenkins RL, Lewis WD. Fungal infections complicating orthotopic liver transplantation. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1995;106:38–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kusne S, Blair JE. Viral and fungal infections after liver transplantation--part II. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(1):2–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zicker M, Colombo AL, Ferraz-Neto BH, Camargo LF. Epidemiology of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: a six-year study of a large Brazilian liver transplantation centre. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106(3):339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Dowling RD, Baladi N, Zenati M, Dummer JS, Kormos RL, Armitage JM, et al. Disruption of the aortic anastomosis after heart-lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;49(1):118–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Palmer SM, Alexander BD, Sanders LL, Edwards LJ, Reller LB, Davis RD, et al. Significance of blood stream infection after lung transplantation: analysis in 176 consecutive patients. Transplantation. 2000;69(11):2360–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Palmer SM, Perfect JR, Howell DN, Lawrence CM, Miralles AP, Davis RD, et al. Candidal anastomotic infection in lung transplant recipients: successful treatment with a combination of systemic and inhaled antifungal agents. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1998;17(10):1029–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hadjiliadis D, Howell DN, Davis RD, Lawrence CM, Rea JB, Tapson VF, et al. Anastomotic infections in lung transplant recipients. Ann Transplant. 2000;5(3):13–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schaenman JM, Rosso F, Austin JM, Baron EJ, Gamberg P, Miller J, et al. Trends in invasive disease due to Candida species following heart and lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11(2):112–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Safdar N, Slattery WR, Knasinski V, Gangnon RE, Li Z, Pirsch JD, et al. Predictors and outcomes of candiduria in renal transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(10):1413–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Albano L, Bretagne S, Mamzer-Bruneel MF, Kacso I, Desnos-Ollivier M, Guerrini P, et al. Evidence that graft-site candidiasis after kidney transplantation is acquired during organ recovery: a multicenter study in France. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(2):194–202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Benedetti E, Gruessner AC, Troppmann C, Papalois BE, Sutherland DE, Dunn DL, et al. Intra-abdominal fungal infections after pancreatic transplantation: incidence, treatment, and outcome. J Am Coll Surg. 1996;183(4):307–16.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fontana I, Bertocchi M, Diviacco P, De Negri A, Magoni Rossi A, Santori G, et al. Infections after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: a single-center experience. Transplant Proc. 2009;41(4):1333–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Berger N, Wirmsberger R, Kafka R, Margreiter C, Ebenbichler C, Stelzmueller I, et al. Infectious complications following 72 consecutive enteric-drained pancreas transplants. Transpl Int. 2006;19(7):549–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lumbreras C, Fernandez I, Velosa J, Munn S, Sterioff S, Paya CV. Infectious complications following pancreatic transplantation: incidence, microbiological and clinical characteristics, and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(3):514–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Berger N, Guggenbichler S, Steurer W, Margreiter C, Mayer G, Kafka R, et al. Bloodstream infection following 217 consecutive systemic-enteric drained pancreas transplants. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:127.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Florescu DF, Islam KM, Grant W, Mercer DF, Langnas A, Botha J, et al. Incidence and outcome of fungal infections in pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12(6):497–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nathan SD, Shorr AF, Schmidt ME, Burton NA. Aspergillus and endobronchial abnormalities in lung transplant recipients. Chest. 2000;118(2):403–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kramer MR, Denning DW, Marshall SE, Ross DJ, Berry G, Lewiston NJ, et al. Ulcerative tracheobronchitis after lung transplantation. A new form of invasive aspergillosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144(3. Pt 1):552–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Singh N, Husain S. Aspergillus infections after lung transplantation: clinical differences in type of transplant and implications for management. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22(3):258–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Singh N, Avery RK, Munoz P, Pruett TL, Alexander B, Jacobs R, et al. Trends in risk profiles for and mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis among liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(1):46–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Montoya JG, Giraldo LF, Efron B, Stinson EB, Gamberg P, Hunt S, et al. Infectious complications among 620 consecutive heart transplant patients at Stanford University Medical Center. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(5):629–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Montoya JG, Chaparro SV, Celis D, Cortes JA, Leung AN, Robbins RC, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in the setting of cardiac transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(Suppl 3):S281–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Morio F, Treilhaud M, Lepelletier D, Le Pape P, Rigal JC, Delile L, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis of the mitral valve in a heart transplant recipient: a case report. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;62(4):453–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Levin T, Suh B, Beltramo D, Samuel R. Aspergillus mediastinitis following orthotopic heart transplantation: case report and review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2004;6(3):129–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Florescu DF, Iwen PC, Hill LA, Dumitru I, Quader MA, Kalil AC, et al. Cerebral aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus ustus following orthotopic heart transplantation: case report and review of the literature. Clin Transpl. 2009;23(1):116–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Muñoz P, Rodriguez C, Bouza E, Palomo J, Yanez JF, Dominguez MJ, et al. Risk factors of invasive aspergillosis after heart transplantation: protective role of oral itraconazole prophylaxis. Am J Transplant. 2004;4(4):636–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Muñoz P, Cerón I, Valerio M, Palomo J, Villa A, Eworo A, et al. Invasive aspergillosis among heart transplant recipients: a 24-year perspective. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2014;33(3):278–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Singh N, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Gupta KL, John GT, et al. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients: clinical relevance of serum cryptococcal antigen. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(2):e12–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Singh N, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Gupta KL, John GT, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans in organ transplant recipients: impact of calcineurin-inhibitor agents on mortality. J Infect Dis. 2007;195(5):756–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Jean SS, Fang CT, Shau WY, Chen YC, Chang SC, Hsueh PR, et al. Cryptococcaemia: clinical features and prognostic factors. QJM. 2002;95(8):511–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Alexander J, Limaye AP, Ko CW, Bronner MP, Kowdley KV. Association of hepatic iron overload with invasive fungal infection in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(12):1799–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    McGuire FR, Grinnan DC, Robbins M. Mucormycosis of the bronchial anastomosis: a case of successful medical treatment and historic review. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(8):857–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lanternier F, Sun HY, Ribaud P, Singh N, Kontoyiannis DP, Lortholary O. Mucormycosis in organ and stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(11):1–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Godara SM, Kute VB, Goplani KR, Gumber MR, Gera DN, Shah PR, et al. Mucormycosis in renal transplant recipients: predictors and outcome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2011;22(4):751–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Almyroudis NG, Sutton DA, Linden P, Rinaldi MG, Fung J, Kusne S. Zygomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients in a tertiary transplant center and review of the literature. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(10):2365–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Einollahi B, Lessan-Pezeshki M, Aslani J, Nemati E, Rostami Z, Hosseini MJ, et al. Two decades of experience in mucormycosis after kidney transplantation. Ann Transplant. 2011;16(3):44–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Nucci M, Anaissie E. Fusarium infections in immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(4):695–704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gauthier GM, Safdar N, Klein BS, Andes DR. Blastomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2007;9(4):310–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Blair JE, Logan JL. Coccidioidomycosis in solid organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(9):1536–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Singh N, Huprikar S, Burdette SD, Morris MI, Blair JE, Wheat LJ. Donor-derived fungal infections in organ transplant recipients: guidelines of the American Society of transplantation, infectious diseases community of practice. Am J Transplant. 2012;12(9):2414–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Shoham S, Hinestrosa F, Moore JJ, O’Donnell S, Ruiz M, Light J. Invasive filamentous fungal infections associated with renal transplant tourism. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12(4):371–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Babik JM, Chin-Hong P. Transplant tourism: understanding the risks. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2015;17(4):473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Avery RK. Antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplantation. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32(6):717–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Zenati M, Dowling RD, Dummer JS, Paradis IL, Arena VC, Armitage JM, et al. Influence of the donor lung on development of early infections in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Transplant. 1990;9(5):502–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Mueller NJ, Weisser M, Fehr T, Wuthrich RP, Mullhaupt B, Lehmann R, et al. Donor-derived aspergillosis from use of a solid organ recipient as a multiorgan donor. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12(1):54–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Keating MR, Guerrero MA, Daly RC, Walker RC, Davies SF. Transmission of invasive aspergillosis from a subclinically infected donor to three different organ transplant recipients. Chest. 1996;109(4):1119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    van der Vliet JA, Tidow G, Kootstra G, van Saene HF, Krom RA, Sloof MJ, et al. Transplantation of contaminated organs. Br J Surg. 1980;67(8):596–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Alexander BD, Schell WA, Siston AM, Rao CY, Bower WA, Balajee SA, et al. Fatal Apophysomyces elegans infection transmitted by deceased donor renal allografts. Am J Transplant. 2010;10(9):2161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Baddley JW, Schain DC, Gupte AA, Lodhi SA, Kayler LK, Frade JP, et al. Transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans by organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(4):e94–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sun HY, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Forrest GN, Lyon GM, et al. Unrecognized pretransplant and donor-derived cryptococcal disease in organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(9):1062–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Nelson JK, Giraldeau G, Montoya JG, Deresinski S, Ho DY, Pham M. Donor-derived Coccidioides immitis endocarditis and disseminated infection in the setting of solid organ transplantation. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016;3(3):ofw086.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Steinbach WJ, Reedy JL, Cramer RA Jr, Perfect JR, Heitman J. Harnessing calcineurin as a novel anti-infective agent against invasive fungal infections. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5(6):418–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Singh N, Heitman J. Antifungal attributes of immunosuppressive agents: new paradigms in management and elucidating the pathophysiologic basis of opportunistic mycoses in organ transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2004;77(6):795–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Lewis RE, Osherov N, Albert ND, May GS. Combination of caspofungin with inhibitors of the calcineurin pathway attenuates growth in vitro in Aspergillus species. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51(2):313–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Narreddy S, Manavathu E, Chandrasekar PH, Alangaden GJ, Revankar SG. In vitro interaction of posaconazole with calcineurin inhibitors and sirolimus against zygomycetes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(4):701–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Dannaoui E, Schwarz P, Lortholary O. In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressive drugs against zygomycetes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53(8):3549–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Patel R, Portela D, Badley AD, Harmsen WS, Larson-Keller JJ, Ilstrup DM, et al. Risk factors of invasive Candida and non-Candida fungal infections after liver transplantation. Transplantation. 1996;62(7):926–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Singh N. Fungal infections in the recipients of solid organ transplantation. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2003;17(1):113–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    George MJ, Snydman DR, Werner BG, Griffith J, Falagas ME, Dougherty NN, et al. The independent role of cytomegalovirus as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG-Study Group Cytogam, MedImmune, Inc Gaithersburg, Maryland. Am J Med. 1997;103(2):106–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hadley S, Karchmer AW. Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 1995;9(4):1045–74.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Collins LA, Samore MH, Roberts MS, Luzzati R, Jenkins RL, Lewis WD, et al. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections complicating orthotopic liver transplantation. J Infect Dis. 1994;170(3):644–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Wade JJ, Rolando N, Hayllar K, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell MW, Williams R. Bacterial and fungal infections after liver transplantation: an analysis of 284 patients. Hepatology. 1995;21(5):1328–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Singh N, Wagener MM, Marino IR, Gayowski T. Trends in invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: correlation with evolution in transplantation practices. Transplantation. 2002;73(1):63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Singh N, Husain S. AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Aspergillosis in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):228–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Westney GE, Kesten S, De Hoyos A, Chapparro C, Winton T, Maurer JR. Aspergillus infection in single and double lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 1996;61(6):915–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Speziali G, McDougall JC, Midthun DE, Peters SG, Scott JP, Daly RC, et al. Native lung complications after single lung transplantation for emphysema. Transpl Int. 1997;10(2):113–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Gavalda J, Len O, San Juan R, Aguado JM, Fortun J, Lumbreras C, et al. Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in solid-organ transplant recipients: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(1):52–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Nunley DR, Ohori P, Grgurich WF, Iacono AT, Williams PA, Keenan RJ, et al. Pulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis lung transplant recipients. Chest. 1998;114(5):1321–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Cahill BC, Hibbs JR, Savik K, Juni BA, Dosland BM, Edin-Stibbe C, et al. Aspergillus airway colonization and invasive disease after lung transplantation. Chest. 1997;112(5):1160–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Husni RN, Gordon SM, Longworth DL, Arroliga A, Stillwell PC, Avery RK, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection is a risk factor for invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26(3):753–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Paterson DL, Singh N. Invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999;78(2):123–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Alexander BD, Tapson VF. Infectious complications of lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001;3(3):128–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Goldfarb NS, Avery RK, Goormastic M, Mehta AC, Schilz R, Smedira N, et al. Hypogammaglobulinemia in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2001;71(2):242–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Higgins R, McNeil K, Dennis C, Parry A, Large S, Nashef SA, et al. Airway stenoses after lung transplantation: management with expanding metal stents. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13(5):774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Helmi M, Love RB, Welter D, Cornwell RD, Meyer KC. Aspergillus infection in lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis: risk factors and outcomes comparison to other types of transplant recipients. Chest. 2003;123(3):800–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Gordon SM, Avery RK. Aspergillosis in lung transplantation: incidence, risk factors, and prophylactic strategies. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001;3(3):161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Bouza E, Pelaez T, Perez-Molina J, Marin M, Alcala L, Padilla B, et al. Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air. J Hosp Infect. 2002;52(4):234–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rabin AS, Givertz MM, Couper GS, Shea MM, Peixoto D, Yokoe DS, et al. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34(2):227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Abbott KC, Hypolite I, Poropatich RK, Hshieh P, Cruess D, Hawkes CA, et al. Hospitalizations for fungal infections after renal transplantation in the United States. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001;3(4):203–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Badiee P, Alborzi A. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients. Exp Clin Transplant. 2011;9(6):355–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Altiparmak MR, Apaydin S, Trablus S, Serdengecti K, Ataman R, Ozturk R, et al. Systemic fungal infections after renal transplantation. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(4):284–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Florescu DF, Qiu F, Mercer DF, Langnas AN, Shafer LR, Kalil AC. Risk factors for systemic Candida infections in pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31(2):120–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Saccente M, Woods GL. Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23(2):367–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR 3rd. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology. Clin Epidemiol. 2013;5:185–97.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Knox KS, Histoplasmosis HCA. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010;7(3):169–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Raghuram A, Restrepo A, Safadjou S, Cooley J, Orloff M, Hardy D, et al. Invasive fungal infections following liver transplantation 2003-2007: incidence, risk factors, survival and the impact of fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis. Liver Transpl. 2012;18(9):1100–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    van Asbeck EC, Clemons KV, Stevens DA. Candida parapsilosis: a review of its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2009;35(4):283–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Singh N, Pruett TL, Houston S, Munoz P, Cacciarelli TV, Wagener MM, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in the recipients of liver retransplantation. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(8):1205–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sampathkumar P, Paya CV. Fusarium infection after solid-organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(8):1237–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Valentine VG, Gupta MR, Walker JE Jr, Seoane L, Bonvillain RW, Lombard GA, et al. Effect of etiology and timing of respiratory tract infections on development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;28(2):163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Weigt SS, Elashoff RM, Huang C, Ardehali A, Gregson AL, Kubak B, et al. Aspergillus colonization of the lung allograft is a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Am J Transplant. 2009;9(8):1903–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Matignon M, Botterel F, Audard V, Dunogue B, Dahan K, Lang P, et al. Outcome of renal transplantation in eight patients with Candida sp. contamination of preservation fluid. Am J Transplant. 2008;8(3):697–700.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Smeekens SP, van de Veerdonk FL, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5(6):805–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Cunha C, Rodrigues F, Zelante T, Aversa F, Romani L, Carvalho A. Genetic susceptibility to aspergillosis in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Med Mycol. 2011;49(Suppl 1):S137–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Slavin MA, Osborne B, Adams R, Levenstein MJ, Schoch HG, Feldman AR, et al. Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation--a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(6):1545–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Marr KA, Seidel K, Slavin MA, Bowden RA, Schoch HG, Flowers ME, et al. Prolonged fluconazole prophylaxis is associated with persistent protection against candidiasis-related death in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood. 2000;96(6):2055–61.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Miceli MH, Kauffman CA. Isavuconazole: A New Broad-Spectrum Triazole Antifungal Agent. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(10):1558–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Robenshtok E, Gafter-Gvili A, Goldberg E, Weinberger M, Yeshurun M, Leibovici L, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis in cancer patients after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(34):5471–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Ethier MC, Science M, Beyene J, Briel M, Lehrnbecher T, Sung L. Mould-active compared with fluconazole prophylaxis to prevent invasive fungal diseases in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Cancer. 2012;106(10):1626–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Cordonnier C, Rovira M, Maertens J, Olavarria E, Faucher C, Bilger K, et al. Voriconazole for secondary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: results of the VOSIFI study. Haematologica. 2010;95(10):1762–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Cordonnier C, Maury S, Pautas C, Bastie JN, Chehata S, Castaigne S, et al. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole to adhere to scheduled treatment in leukemic patients and stem cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;33(9):943–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Freifeld AG, Bow EJ, Sepkowitz KA, Boeckh MJ, Ito JI, Mullen CA, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(4):e56–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Maertens J, Marchetti O, Herbrecht R, Cornely OA, Fluckiger U, Frere P, et al. European guidelines for antifungal management in leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: summary of the ECIL 3--2009 update. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46(5):709–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Prevention and treatment of cancer-related infections. Version 2.2016.[internet] Available from: [cited 2016 Aug 1].
  236. 236.
    van Burik JA, Ratanatharathorn V, Stepan DE, Miller CB, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, et al. Micafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections during neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(10):1407–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Chandrasekar P, Langston A, Tarantolo SR, et al. Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(4):335–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston DJ, Perfect J, Ullmann AJ, Walsh TJ, et al. Posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(4):348–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Marks DI, Pagliuca A, Kibbler CC, Glasmacher A, Heussel CP, Kantecki M, et al. Voriconazole versus itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis following allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2011;155(3):318–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Wingard JR, Carter SL, Walsh TJ, Kurtzberg J, Small TN, Baden LR, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of fluconazole versus voriconazole for prevention of invasive fungal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2010;116(24):5111–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Lorf T, Braun F, Ruchel R, Muller A, Sattler B, Ringe B. Systemic mycoses during prophylactical use of liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) after liver transplantation. Mycoses. 1999;42(1–2):47–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Singh N, Mieles L, Yu VL, Gayowski T. Invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients: association with candidemia and consumption coagulopathy and failure of prophylaxis with low-dose amphotericin B. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;17(5):906–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Eschenauer GA, Lam SW, Carver PL. Antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 2009;15(8):842–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Singh N, Paterson DL, Gayowski T, Wagener MM, Marino IR. Preemptive prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients requiring renal replacement therapy. Transplantation. 2001;71(7):910–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Winston DJ, Pakrasi A, Busuttil RW. Prophylactic fluconazole in liver transplant recipients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(10):729–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Kishino S, Ohno K, Shimamura T, Furukawatodo H. Optimal prophylactic dosage and disposition of micafungin in living donor liver recipients. Clin Transpl. 2004;18(6):676–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Montejo M, Munoz P, Cisneros JM, Ramos A, et al. Prophylaxis with caspofungin for invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2009;87(3):424–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Winston DJ, Limaye AP, Pelletier S, Safdar N, Morris MI, Meneses K, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazolefor prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2014;14(12):2758–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Saliba F, Pascher A, Cointault O, Laterre PF, Cervera C, De Waele JJ, et al. TENPIN Liver Transplant European Study Into the Prevention of Fungal Infection Investigators. Randomized trial of micafungin for the prevention of invasive fungal infection in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(7):997–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, Fishman JA, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):e1–e60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Silveira FP, Kusne S, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Candida infections in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):220–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Eschenauer GA, Kwak EJ, Humar A, Potoski BA, Clarke LG, Shields RK, et al. Targeted versus universal antifungal prophylaxis among liver transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2015;15(1):180–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Giannella M, Bartoletti M, Morelli M, Cristini F, Tedeschi S, Campoli C, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients: one size does not fit all. Transpl Infect Dis. 2016;18(4):538–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Dummer JS, Lazariashvilli N, Barnes J, Ninan M, Milstone AP. A survey of anti-fungal management in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(12):1376–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Husain S, Zaldonis D, Kusne S, Kwak EJ, Paterson DL, McCurry KR. Variation in antifungal prophylaxis strategies in lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2006;8(4):213–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Neoh CF, Snell GI, Kotsimbos T, Levvey B, Morrissey CO, Slavin MA, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplantation--a world-wide survey. Am J Transplant. 2011;11(2):361–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Reichenspurner H, Gamberg P, Nitschke M, Valantine H, Hunt S, Oyer PE, et al. Significant reduction in the number of fungal infections after lung-, heart-lung, and heart transplantation using aerosolized amphotericin B prophylaxis. Transplant Proc. 1997;29(1–2):627–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Monforte V, Roman A, Gavalda J, Bravo C, Tenorio L, Ferrer A, et al. Nebulized amphotericin B prophylaxis for Aspergillus infection in lung transplantation: study of risk factors. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001;20(12):1274–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Palmer SM, Drew RH, Whitehouse JD, Tapson VF, Davis RD, McConnell RR, et al. Safety of aerosolized amphotericin B lipid complex in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2001;72(3):545–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Drew RH, Dodds Ashley E, Benjamin DK Jr, Duane Davis R, Palmer SM, Perfect JR. Comparative safety of amphotericin B lipid complex and amphotericin B deoxycholate as aerosolized antifungal prophylaxis in lung-transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2004;77(2):232–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Monforte V, Ussetti P, Gavalda J, Bravo C, Laporta R, Len O, et al. Feasibility, tolerability, and outcomes of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B for Aspergillus infection prevention in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010;29(5):523–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Husain S, Capitano B, Corcoran T, Studer SM, Crespo M, Johnson B, et al. Intrapulmonary disposition of amphotericin B after aerosolized delivery of amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet; ABLC) in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2010;90(11):1215–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Minari A, Husni R, Avery RK, Longworth DL, DeCamp M, Bertin M, et al. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis among solid organ transplant recipients and implications for prophylaxis in lung transplants. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002;4(4):195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Husain S, Paterson DL, Studer S, Pilewski J, Crespo M, Zaldonis D, et al. Voriconazole prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(12):3008–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Cadena J, Levine DJ, Angel LF, Maxwell PR, Brady R, Sanchez JF, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole or itraconazole in lung transplant recipients: hepatotoxicity and effectiveness. Am J Transplant. 2009;9(9):2085–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Miller R, Assi M, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):250–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Wheat LJ, Freifeld AG, Kleiman MB, Baddley JW, McKinsey DS, Loyd JE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(7):807–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Avery RK, Michaels MG, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Strategies for safe living after solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):304–10.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Lund BM, O'Brien SJ. The occurrence and prevention of foodborne disease in vulnerable people. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8(9):961–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    FSIS/USDA. Food safety for transplant recipients. 2006 [updated 2011 Sept, cited 2016 Aug 23]. Available from:

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. Saullo
    • 1
    Email author
  • John R. Perfect
    • 2
  • Barbara D. Alexander
    • 2
  1. 1.Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International HealthDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Duke University Medical Center, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Division of Infectious Diseases and International HealthDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations