Advertisement

Respiratory Tract Infections: Sinusitis, Bronchitis, and Pneumonia

  • Benjamin A. Miko
  • Marcus R. Pereira
  • Amar SafdarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are at increased risk of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. While these infections are frequently encountered in the general population, the spectrum of their clinical presentation including morbidity and mortality is increased in patients undergoing transplantation procedures. Impaired innate and adaptive immunity, potential anatomical abnormalities resulting from extensive surgical procedures, presences of indwelling medical devices, and increased healthcare exposure put transplant recipients at particularly high risk for respiratory tract disease. Infections of the respiratory tract can be divided into those affecting the paranasal sinuses, the upper airways such as bronchitis and tracheobronchitis, and the lower airways like pneumonia. Each of these clinical syndromes can further be classified based on their chronicity, acute vs. chronic; their setting, community vs. nosocomial; and the etiology such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rarely parasites. It is also important to realize that such immunologically vulnerable patients are at risk for polymicrobial infection that may present concurrently or in a sequential, consecutive fashion. This chapter reviews the common respiratory tract infections affecting transplant recipients with particular attention directed toward epidemiological risk factors, clinical presentations, diagnostic strategies, and common pathogens. Specific causes of opportunistic pneumonias are also reviewed.

Keywords

Pneumonia Sinusitis Bronchitis Upper respiratory tract infection Lower respiratory tract infection Opportunistic disease 

References

  1. 1.
    Fishman JA. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2601–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibrahim EH, Tracy L, Hill C, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a community hospital: risk factors and clinical outcomes. Chest. 2001;120:555–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bodey GP, Buckley M, Sathe YS, Freireich EJ. Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:328–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carlisle PS, Gucalp R, Wiernik PH. Nosocomial infections in neutropenic cancer patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993;14:320–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Issa NC, Fishman JA. Infectious complications of antilymphocyte therapies in solid organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2009;48:772–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roemer E, Blau IW, Basara N, Kiehl MG, Bischoff M, Günzelmann S, et al. Toxoplasmosis, a severe complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: successful treatment strategies during a 5-year single-center experience. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2001;32:E1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Safdar A, Armstrong D. Listeriosis in patients at a comprehensive cancer center, 1955–1997. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2003;37:359–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Savage DG, Taylor P, Blackwell J, Chen F, Szydlo RM, Rule SA, Spencer A, et al. Paranasal sinusitis following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997;19(1):55–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shibuya TY, Momin F, Abella E, Jacobs JR, Karanes C, Ratanatharathorn V, et al. Sinus disease in the bone marrow transplant population: incidence, risk factors, and complications. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;113(6):705–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dhong HJ, Lee JC, Ryu JS, Cho DY. Rhinosinusitis in transplant patients. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001;26:329–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yung MW, Gould J, Upton GJG. Nasal polyposis in children with cystic fibrosis: a long-term follow-up study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1081–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ortiz E, Sakano E, De Souza CA, Vigorito A, Eid KAB, Chronic GVHD. Predictive factor for rhinosinusitis in bone marrow transplantation. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;72:328–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thompson AM, Couch M, Zahurak ML, Johnson C, Vogelsang GB. Risk factors for post-stem cell transplant sinusitis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:257–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rayes A, Sahni K, Hanna C, Suryadevara M, Goyal P, Cherrick I. Cytomegalovirus sinusitis in a child with chronic myelogenous leukemia following bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:1140–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gwaltney JM. Acute community-acquired sinusitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23(6):1209–23; quiz 1224–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mogensen C, Tos M. Quantitative histology of the maxillary sinus. Rhinology. 1977;15:129–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J, European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps Group. EP3OS 2007: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2007;45:97–101.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holzmann D, Speich R, Kaufmann T, Laube I, Russi EW, Simmen D, et al. Effects of sinus surgery in patients with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation: a 10-year experience. Transplantation. 2004;77:134–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murray TS, Egan M, Kazmierczak BI. Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007;19:83–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Evans FO, Sydnor JB, Moore WEC, Moore GR, Manwaring JL, Brill AH, et al. Sinusitis of the maxillary antrum. N Engl J Med. 1975;293:735–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    de Medeiros CR, Bleggi-Torres LF, Faoro LN, Reis-Filho JS, Silva LC, de Medeiros BC, et al. Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by zygomycosis after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001;3:231–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li JY, Yong TY, Khoo E, Russ GR, Grove DI, Coates PT, McDonald SP. Isolated sphenoid fungal sinusitis in a renal transplant recipient presenting with bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Transpl Int. 2007;20(7):640–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berlinger NT. Sinusitis in immunodeficient and immunosuppressed patients. Laryngoscope. 1985;95:29–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee SY, Yeo CL, Lee WH, Kwa AL, Koh LP, Hsu LY. Prevalence of invasive fungal disease in hematological patients at a tertiary university hospital in Singapore. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ellison MD, Hung RT, Harris K, Campbell BH. Report of the first case of invasive fungal sinusitis caused by Scopulariopsis acremonium: review of Scopulariopsis infections. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124:1014–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rombaux P, Eloy P, Bertrand B, Delos M, Doyen C. Lethal disseminated Fusarium infection with sinus involvement in the immunocompromised host: case report and review of the literature. Rhinology. 1996;34:237–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Richardson SE, Bannatyne RM, Summerbell RC, Milliken J, Gold R, Weitzman SS. Disseminated fusarial infection in the immunocompromised host. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10:1171–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Furukawa H, Kusne S, Sutton DA, Manez R, Carrau R, Nichols L, et al. Acute invasive sinusitis due to Trichoderma longibrachiatum in a liver and small bowel transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:487–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Machado CM, Martins MA, Heins-Vaccari EM, CdS L, MCA M, Castelli JB, et al. Scedosporium apiospermum sinusitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of a case. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1998;40:321–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Castiglioni B, Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG, Fung J, Kusne S. Pseudallescheria boydii (Anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum). Infection in solid organ transplant recipients in a tertiary medical center and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002;81:333–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vernon SE, Acar BC, Pham SM, Fertel D. Acanthamoeba infection in lung transplantation: report of a case and review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2005;7:154–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rivera MA, Padhya TA. Acanthamoeba: a rare primary cause of rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:1201–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Craven DE, Hjalmarson KI. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis and pneumonia: thinking outside the box. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(Suppl 1):S59–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    van Assen S, Bootsma GP, Verweij PE, Donnelly JP, Raemakers JM. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;26:1131–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fernández-Ruiz M, Silva JT, San-Juan R, de Dios B, García-Luján R, López-Medrano F, et al. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis: report of 8 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;91:261–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wenzel RP, Fowler AA. Clinical practice. Acute bronchitis. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2125–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Falsey AR, Erdman D, Anderson LJ, Walsh EE. Human metapneumovirus infections in young and elderly adults. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:785–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boldy DA, Skidmore SJ, Ayres JG. Acute bronchitis in the community: clinical features, infective factors, changes in pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity to histamine. Respir Med. 1990;84:377–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jonsson JS, Sigurdsson JA, Kristinsson KG, Guthnadóttir M, Magnusson S. Acute bronchitis in adults. How close do we come to its aetiology in general practice? Scand J Prim Health Care. 1997;15:156–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Louie JK, Hacker JK, Gonzales R, Mark J, Maselli JH, Yagi S, Drew WL. Characterization of viral agents causing acute respiratory infection in a San Francisco University Medical Center Clinic during the influenza season. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:822–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gottlieb J, Schulz TF, Welte T, Fuehner T, Dierich M, Simon AR, Engelmann I. Community-acquired respiratory viral infections in lung transplant recipients: a single season cohort study. Transplantation. 2009;87:1530–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chemaly RF, Ghosh S, Bodey GP, Rohatgi N, Safdar A, Keating MJ, et al. Respiratory viral infections in adults with hematologic malignancies and human stem cell transplantation recipients: a retrospective study at a major cancer center. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:278–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Renaud C, Campbell AP. Changing epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and solid organ transplant recipients. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:333–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tang T-C, Chuang W-Y. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in allogeneic stem cell transplanted recipient. Eur J Haematol. 2012;88:183.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Krenke R, Kołkowska-Leśniak A, Pałynyczko G, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Konopka L. Ulcerative and pseudomembranous Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2009;89:257–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adams PF, Hendershot GE, Marano MA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Vital Health Stat. 1999;10:1–203.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ljungman P, Ward KN, Crooks BN, Parker A, Martino R, Shaw PJ, et al. Respiratory virus infections after stem cell transplantation: a prospective study from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;28:479–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kumar D, Husain S, Chen MH, Moussa G, Himsworth D, Manuel O, et al. A prospective molecular surveillance study evaluating the clinical impact of community-acquired respiratory viruses in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2010;89:1028–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    López-Medrano F, Aguado JM, Lizasoain M, Folgueira D, Juan RS, Díaz-Pedroche C, et al. Clinical implications of respiratory virus infections in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective study. Transplantation. 2007;84:851–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Erard V, Chien JW, Kim HW, Nichols WG, Flowers ME, Martin PJ, et al. Airflow decline after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: the role of community respiratory viruses. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1619–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Waghmare A, Englund JA, Boeckh M. How I treat respiratory viral infections in the setting of intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2016;127:2682–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Campbell AP, Guthrie KA, Englund JA, Farney RM, Minerich EL, Kuypers J, et al. Clinical outcomes associated with respiratory virus detection before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:192–202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fisher CE, Preiksaitis CM, Lease ED, Edelman J, Kirby KA, Leisenring WM, et al. Symptomatic respiratory virus infection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:313–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chien JW, Duncan S, Williams KM, Pavletic SZ. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-an increasingly recognized manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16:S106–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Infectious Diseases Society of America; American Thoracic Society, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:S27–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, Muscedere J, Sweeney DA, Palmer LB, et al. Management of adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(5):e61–e111.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Costa SF, Alexander BD. Non-Aspergillus fungal pneumonia in transplant recipients. Clin Chest Med. 2005;26:675–90, vii.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:909–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kotloff RM, Ahya VN, Crawford SW. Pulmonary complications of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:22–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chalmers JD, Rother C, Salih W, Ewig S. Healthcare-associated pneumonia does not accurately identify potentially resistant pathogens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:330–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gross AE, Van Schooneveld TC, Olsen KM, Rupp ME, Bui TH, Forsung E, Kalil AC. Epidemiology and predictors of multidrug-resistant community-acquired and health care-associated pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:5262–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yap V, Datta D, Metersky ML. Is the present definition of health care-associated pneumonia the best way to define risk of infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens? Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2013;27:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bartlett JG. Community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Pract Suppl. 2000;115:18–22.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aisenberg G, Rolston KV, Safdar A. Bacteremia caused by Achromobacter and Alcaligenes species in 46 patients with cancer (1989–2003). Cancer. 2004;101:2134–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Patterson TF, Kirkpatrick WR, White M, Hiemenz JW, Wingard JR, Dupont B, et al. Invasive aspergillosis. Disease spectrum, treatment practices, and outcomes. I3 Aspergillus Study Group. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79:250–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Junghanss C, Marr KA, Carter RA, Sandmaier BM, Maris MB, Maloney DG, et al. Incidence and outcome of bacterial and fungal infections following nonmyeloablative compared with myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a matched control study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002;8:512–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Boeckh M, Martin P, Corey L. Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors. Blood. 2002;100:4358–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ison MG, Hayden FG, Kaiser L, Corey L, Boeckh M. Rhinovirus infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1139–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Alangaden GJ, Wahiduzzaman M, Chandrasekar PH, Bone Marrow Transplant Group. Aspergillosis: the most common community-acquired pneumonia with gram-negative Bacilli as copathogens in stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:659–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ascioglu S, Rex JH, de Pauw B, Bennett JE, Bille J, Crokaert F, Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Mycoses Study Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, et al. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mandell LA, Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Whitney C, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1405–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Niederman MS, Mandell LA, Anzueto A, Bass JB, Broughton WA, Campbell GD, American Thoracic Society, et al. Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis, assessment of severity, antimicrobial therapy, and prevention. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:1730–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rubinstein E, Kollef MH, Nathwani D. Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:S378–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rello J, Ollendorf DA, Oster G, Vera-Llonch M, Bellm L, Redman R, Kollef MH, VAP Outcomes Scientific Advisory Group. Epidemiology and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a large US database. Chest. 2002;122:2115–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    American Thoracic Society & Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:388–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dangerfield B, Chung A, Webb B, Seville MT. Predictive value of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab PCR assay for MRSA pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:859–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Reza Shariatzadeh M, Huang JQ, Marrie TJ. Differences in the features of aspiration pneumonia according to site of acquisition: community or continuing care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:296–302.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Marik PE. Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:665–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cabre M, Serra-Prat M, Palomera E, Almirall J, Pallares R, Clavé P. Prevalence and prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients with pneumonia. Age Ageing. 2010;39:39–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    El-Solh AA, Pietrantoni C, Bhat A, Aquilina AT, Okada M, Grover V, Gifford N. Microbiology of severe aspiration pneumonia in institutionalized elderly. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1650–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mier L, Dreyfuss D, Darchy B, Lanore JJ, Djedaïni K, Weber P, et al. Is penicillin G an adequate initial treatment for aspiration pneumonia? A prospective evaluation using a protected specimen brush and quantitative cultures. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19:279–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Carratalà J, Mykietiuk A, Fernández-Sabé N, Suárez C, Dorca J, Verdaguer R, et al. Health care-associated pneumonia requiring hospital admission: epidemiology, antibiotic therapy, and clinical outcomes. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1393–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brown-Elliott BA, Brown JM, Conville PS, Wallace RJ. Clinical and laboratory features of the Nocardia spp. based on current molecular taxonomy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:259–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Torres HA, Reddy BT, Raad II, Tarrand J, Bodey GP, Hanna HA, et al. Nocardiosis in cancer patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002;81:388–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peleg AY, Husain S, Qureshi ZA, Silveira FP, Sarumi M, Shutt KA, et al. Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of Nocardia infection in organ transplant recipients: a matched case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1307–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Santos M, Gil-Brusola A, Morales P. Infection by Nocardia in solid organ transplantation: thirty years of experience. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:2141–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yu X, Han F, Wu J, He Q, Peng W, Wang Y, et al. Nocardia infection in kidney transplant recipients: case report and analysis of 66 published cases. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:385–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Uttamchandani RB, Daikos GL, Reyes RR, Fischl MA, Dickinson GM, et al. Nocardiosis in 30 patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinical features and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18:348–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    De La Rosa GR, Jacobson KL, Rolston KV, Raad II, Kontoyiannis DP, Safdar A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a comprehensive cancer centre: active disease in patients with underlying malignancy during 1990-2000. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:749–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Muñoz P, Rodríguez C, Bouza E. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in recipients of solid organ transplants. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:581–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Singh N, Paterson DL. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in solid-organ transplant recipients: impact and implications for management. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:1266–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Keating MR, Daly JS, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):77–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Patel R, Roberts GD, Keating MR, Paya CV. Infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in kidney, heart, and liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:263–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Knoll BM, Kappagoda S, Gill RR, Goldberg HJ, Boyle K, Baden LR, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection among lung transplant recipients: a 15-year cohort study. Transpl Infect Dis. 2012;14:452–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Piersimoni C. Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:397–403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Safdar A, White DA, Stover D, Armstrong D, Murray HW. Profound interferon gamma deficiency in patients with chronic pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. Am J Med. 2002;113:756–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Martin SI, Fishman JA, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Pneumocystis pneumonia in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):272–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morgan J, Wannemuehler KA, Marr KA, Hadley S, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ, et al. Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program. Med Mycol. 2005;43(Suppl 1):S49–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Marr KA. Empirical antifungal therapy – new options, new tradeoffs. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:278–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Marr KA, Patterson T, Denning D. Aspergillosis. Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapy. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2002;16:875–94, vi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Singh N, Singh NM, Husain S, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Aspergillosis in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(Suppl 4):228–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Lionakis MS, Lewis RE, Chamilos G, Healy M, Perego C, et al. Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case-control observational study of 27 recent cases. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1350–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Heussel CP, Kauczor HU, Heussel GE, Fischer B, Begrich M, Mildenberger P, Thelen M. Pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:796–805.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Razonable R. Direct and indirect effects of Cytomegalovirus: can we prevent them? Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28:1–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    George MJ, Snydman DR, Werner BG, Griffith J, Falagas ME, Dougherty NN, Rubin RH. The independent role of Cytomegalovirus as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG-Study Group. Cytogam, MedImmune, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland. Am J Med. 1997;103:106–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Walker RC, Marshall WF, Strickler JG, Wiesner RH, Velosa JA, Habermann TM, et al. Pretransplantation assessment of the risk of lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:1346–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin A. Miko
    • 1
  • Marcus R. Pereira
    • 2
  • Amar Safdar
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Columbia University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine – Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of MedicineEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations