Infections in Heart, Lung, and Heart-Lung Transplantation

  • Andrés F. Henao-Martínez
  • José G. MontoyaEmail author


Half a century has passed since the first orthotopic heart transplant took place. Surgical innovations allowed for heart, lung, and heart-lung transplantation to save lives of patients with incurable chronic cardiopulmonary conditions. The complexity of the surgical interventions, chronic host health conditions, and antirejection immunosuppressive medications makes infectious complications common. Infections have remained one of the main barriers for successful transplantation and a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Recognition of infections and its management in this setting require outstanding clinical skills since transplant recipients may not exhibit classic signs or symptoms of disease, and laboratory work has some pitfalls. The prevention, identification, and management of infectious diseases complications in this population are a priority to undertake to improve the medical outcomes of transplantation. Herein, we reviewed the historical aspects, epidemiology, and prophylaxis of infections in heart, lung, and heart-lung transplantation. We also discuss the most prevalent organisms affecting the host and the organ systems involved.


Heart transplantation Lung transplantation Heart-lung transplantation Bacterial infections Virus diseases Fungal infections Epidemiology Prophylaxis Diagnosis 



No funding agencies had any role in the preparation, review, or approval of this paper. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Colorado Denver or Stanford University. No conflict of interests was reported by Andrés F. Henao-Martínez and José G. Montoya.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrés F. Henao-Martínez
    • 1
  • José G. Montoya
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology LaboratoryNational Reference Center for the Study and Diagnosis of ToxoplasmosisPalo AltoUSA

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