Advertisement

Controlled Release Systems

  • Vasif Hasirci
  • Nesrin Hasirci
Chapter

Abstract

Drugs are bioactive agents used to treat or prevent diseases and illnesses through chemical action in the body. In order for a drug to be effective, it has to be at the site of cause of the illness, whether it is an infection, a blockage of an artery, pain, or some other malfunction of the bodily organs or tissues due to genetic causes or a trauma or aging. In order for the drug to reach this target site, it has to be introduced to the body (administration), cross barriers (distribution), get modified by the enzymes within the body (metabolism), and be removed from the body (elimination or excretion). All these processes affect the rate, dose at the target, efficacy, and the fate of the drug. In order for the drug to have prolonged or predetermined period of presence and sufficiently high concentration and to be localized specifically at the target tissue, “controlled release systems” are designed. All the abovementioned topics have to be discussed before a controlled release system can be designed.

References

  1. 1.
    Pollack IP, Quigley HA, Harbin TS (1976) The Ocusert pilocarpine system: advantages and disadvantages. South Med J 69(10):1296–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richa T, Gaurav S (2012) Promising implication of ocuserts in ocular disease. J Drug Deliv Ther 2(2):18–25Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang Y, Kim H-J, Vunjak-Novakovic G, Kaplan DL (2006) Stem cell-based tissue engineering with silk biomaterials. Biomaterials 27:6064–6082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sill TJ, von Recum HA (2008) Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Biomaterials 29(13):1989–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kenar H (2008) PhD Thesis, METU Department of BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li D, Xia Y (2004) Electrospinning of nanofibers: reinventing the wheel? Adv Mater 16(14):1151–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldberg M, Langer R, Jia X (2007) Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 18(3):241–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yilgor P (2009) PhD Thesis, METU Department of BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eke G (2011) Biopolymer Based Nano-Microparticles as Drug Carriers for the Treatment of Skin Diseases. MSc Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yucel D (2009) Stem Cell Based Nerve Tissue Engineering on Patterned Constructs. PhD. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ​Khan IU, Serra CA, Anton N, Vandamme T (2013) Microfluidics: a focus on improved cancer targeted drug delivery systems. J Control Release 172:1065–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ​​Baek SE, Lee KH, Park YS, Oh D-K, Oh S, Kim K-S, Kim D-E (2014) RNA aptamer-conjugated liposome as an efficient anticancer drug delivery vehicle targeting cancer cells in vivo. J Control Release 196:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ​​Tavano L, de Cindio B, Picci N, Ioele G, Muzzalupo R (2014) Drug compartmentalization as strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of diclofenac sodium loaded niosomes for topical applications. Biomed Microdevices 16(6):851–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fox ME, Szoka FC, Fréchet JMJ (2009) Soluble polymer carriers for the treatment of cancer: the importance of molecular architecture. Acc Chem Res 42(8):1141–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasif Hasirci
    • 1
  • Nesrin Hasirci
    • 2
  1. 1.BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, and Department of Biological SciencesMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, and Department of ChemistryMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations