Cardiorenal Acute Kidney Injury: Epidemiology, Presentation, Causes, Pathophysiology, and Treatment

  • Claudio Ronco
  • Luca Di Lullo


Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent the main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients.

Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently coexist; this organ-organ interaction, also called organ cross talk, leads to a well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here, we’ll describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes to and/or precipitates the development of acute cardiac injury.

AKI may directly or indirectly produce an acute cardiac event, and it can be associated to volume overload, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disorders such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia; coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and fibrosis have been also described in patients with AKI with consequent direct negative effects on cardiac performance.


Acute kidney injury Type-3 cardiorenal syndrome Biomarkers Renal replacement therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Ronco
    • 1
  • Luca Di Lullo
    • 2
  1. 1.International Renal Research Institute, S.Bortolo HospitalVicenzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Nephrology and DialysisL. Parodi-Delfino HospitalColleferroItaly

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