Premenstrual Syndrome

  • Stephanie J. Bird
Part of the Readings from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience book series (REN)


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has become a widely recognized phenomenon by the medical, psychological, and scientific communities. Though more than 150 symptoms have been associated with it, those most often described are mood swings, breast tenderness, bloating, migraine headaches, irritability, and fatigue. Other symptoms commonly identified are tension, depression, anxiety, food cravings, abdominal discomfort, acne, edema, swelling of the extremities, and dizziness. Depending upon the symptoms and their severity, premenstrual changes may be simply an annoyance, or, if sufficiently severe or prolonged, they can be incapacitating.

Further reading

  1. Abplanalp JM, Haskett RF, Rose RM (1980): The premenstrual syndrome. Adv Psychoneuroendocrinol 3: 327–347Google Scholar
  2. Abraham GE (1980): Premenstrual tension. Curr Prob Obstet Gyn 3(12): 1–39Google Scholar
  3. Endicott J, Halbreich U, Schacht S, Nee J (1981): Premenstrual changes and affective disorders. Psychosom Med 43: 519–529Google Scholar
  4. Gannon L (1981): Evidence for a psychological etiology of menstrual disorders: a critical review. Psychol Rep 48: 287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Reid RL (1985): Premenstrual syndrome. Curr Prob Obstet Gyn and Infertil. 8(2): 1–57Google Scholar
  6. Reid RL, Yen SSC (1981): Premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gyn 139: 85–104Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie J. Bird

There are no affiliations available

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