• Terrance M. Egan
Part of the Readings from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience book series (REN)


Morphine is the chief active ingredient of crude opium, the dried sap of the poppy Papaver somniferum. The drug has pronounced actions on both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system, and is clinically useful as an analgesic and antitussant, and in the control of diarrhea. It is also a powerful narcotic which is widely abused for its euphoric qualities, often resulting in drug addiction.

Further reading

  1. Akil H, Watson SJ, Young E, Lewis ME, Khachaturian H, Walker JM (1984): Endogenous opioids: Biology and function. Annu Rev Neurosci 7: 223–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Johnson MR, Milne GM (1981): Analgetics. In: Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, 4th ed, Wolf ME, ed. New York: John WileyGoogle Scholar
  3. Musto, DF (1973) The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control. New Haven: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terrance M. Egan

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