The Application of Fracture Mechanics to Pipeline Design
Gas and oil pipelines are characteristically designed to accept yielding under hydrotesting and are operated at high design pressure stresses in relation to yield. The service defects which must be tolerated include stress corrosion cracks and mechanical impact damage from construction machinery, such that elastic-plastic bulging may precede fracture. These conditions lead to use of fracture mechanics in fracture control, although mainly through the ubiquitous Charpy V test.
These aspects of fracture mechanics will be reviewed in this chapter, with separate references to the conditions for crack initiation under static conditions, and the control of running brittle and ductile shear cracks. Reference will also be made to recent work on relationships between scatter in notch toughness tests, and probabilities of failure.
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