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Excitation Spectrum and Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid He4

  • William E. Keller
Chapter
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (INCMS)

Abstract

Hohenberg and Martin (1) have pointed out that the theory of liquid helium has been developed on three different levels. We have already discussed two of these levels, the first being the phenomenological theory of London and Tisza. Here, a comparison with the condensation of a free BE gas leads to a two-fluid model and predicts a macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state, the ground state, which is identified with the superfluid particles. Through this analogy, the unusual transport properties of He II as well as the transition at the λ-point find an appealing approximation. The second level is the semiphenomenological excitation picture due to Landau, in which a two-fluid description for He II follows from an examination of the energy states permissible for the liquid and the subsequent calculation of the thermal properties in terms of these states.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Keller
    • 1
  1. 1.Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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