Role of Interfacially Active Metals in the Apparent Adherence of Nickel to Sapphire

  • Willard H. Sutton
  • Earl Feingold
Conference paper
Part of the Materials Science Research book series (MSR)


The effects of 1 at. % of interfacially active metals (chromium, titanium, and zirconium) on the wetting and adherence of nickel to sapphire (α-Al2O3) were investigated. Sessile-drop tests were conducted in order to determine the contact angle and the interfacial energy. The apparent adherence of the solidified nickel drops was determined by a simple shear test. The structure of the nickel and the Ni−Al2O3 interface was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, electron probe X-ray microanalysis, and microhardness measurements. Each active metal had a distinct and reproducible effect on the thickness, the composition, and the microstructure of the interfacial zone, which is discussed in detail. The pure nickel and the chromium-doped specimens exhibited the greatest apparent adherence to the sapphire, whereas the titanium-doped and zirconium-doped specimens chemically degraded (weakened) the surface of the sapphire so that premature failure occurred. A model was developed to explain the effects of the various additives upon bond strength and upon failure modes.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Willard H. Sutton
    • 1
  • Earl Feingold
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Science LaboratoryGeneral Electric CompanyKing of PrussiaUSA

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