The Progressive Mode of Multistage Crystallization

  • G. R. Atwood


Continuous multistage separation schemes classically incorporate a reflux to take advantage of the multiplicity of stages available. Without this reflux, the total possible separation under steady state conditions is no better than that which could be obtained with a single stage. The maximum possible separation is obtained at total reflux, in which case, each stage is able to perform a full stage separation. If the separation factor per stage is expressed by s, then the total separation factor S for N stages is given by s N . However, at total reflux there can be no product, and practical multistage operations are carried out at some partial reflux which, in conjunction with the appropriate number of stages, can be optimized for the specific separation required.


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Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Pfann, W. G., “Zone Melting,” 2 ed., p. 1, Wiley, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibid., Chap. 6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ibid., pp. 184–190.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ibid., p. 187.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ibid., pp. 195–196.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liscom, P. W., C. B. Weinberger, and J. E. Powers, Ind. Chem. Eng., 73–85 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schildknecht, H., Analytica Chimica Acta, 38, 261–273 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Atwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Union Carbide CorporationTarrytownUSA

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