Quantum Signatures of Chaos
The distinction between level clustering and level repulsion is one of the quantum analogues of the classical distinction between globally regular and predominantly chaotic motion (see Figs. 1, 2, 3). In order to reveal level repulsion under conditions of global classical chaos special care may be necessary: (i) subspectra referring to different values of the quantum numbers related to symmetries must be dealt with separately and (ii) for systems with quantum localization only levels whose wavefunctions have overlapping support must be admitted. A “level” may either be an energy eigenvalue E in the case of autonomous systems or, for periodically driven systems, a quasi-energy φ, i.e. an eigenphase of the unitary Floquet operator transporting the wavevector from period to period.
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