The Use of Karle-Hauptman Matrices in Structure Determination

  • Rudolf A. G. de Graaff
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 274)


In the majority of structures determined using Direct Methods the phase problem is solved by the application of the well known ∑2-relation. Modern programme systems produce satisfactory results in about 95% of all problems. Various attempts to include higher order phase relations in the actual calculation of the phases have been made, with some measure of success. In modern Direct Methods packages higher order relations are commonly used for the calculation of figures of merit.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf A. G. de Graaff
    • 1
  1. 1.Gorlaeus LaboratoriesUniversity of LeydenThe Netherlands

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