Electromagnetic Wave Modeling for Remote Sensing

  • S. V. Nghiem
  • J. A. Kong
  • T. Le Toan


Presented in this paper is a layer random medium model for fully Polarimetrie remote sensing of geophysical media. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is used to calculate effective permittivities and the distorted Born approximation is applied to obtain Polarimetrie scattering coefficients. In scattering layers, the embedded scatterers are generally modeled with a non-spherical correlation function with orientation described by a probability density function [1], The model accounts for multiple interactions due to the medium interfaces, coherent effects of wave propagation, first-order cross-polarized return, and multiple scattering to some extent. The paper is composed of five sections. After this introduction, section 2 reviews Polarimetrie scattering descriptions under consideration in terms of scattering coefficients, covariance matrix, and Mueller matrix. Relations between the matrix elements and the scattering coefficients will be shown. Section 3 presents the theoretical model formulated from Maxwell’s equations to derive the Polarimetrie scattering coefficients. Section 4 shows results for some geophysical media such as snow, sea ice, and soybean. Physical insights provided by the theoretical model are used to explain the behaviors of the corresponding covariance matrix and the polarization signatures calculated with Mueller matrix. Finally, section 5 summarizes this paper.


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  1. [1]
    Yueh, H. A., R. T. Shin, and J. A. Kong, “Scattering from randomly oriented scat-terers with strong permittivity fluctuations,” accepted for publication in Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 1990.Google Scholar
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    Borgeaud, M., S. V. Nghiem, R. T. Shin, and J. A. Kong, “Theoretical Models for Polarimetric Microwave Remote Sensing of Earth Terrain,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 3, 61–81, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Nghiem, S. V., M. Borgeaud, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, “Polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical media with layer random medium model,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, edited by J. A. Kong, 3, Chapter 1, 1–73, 1990.Google Scholar
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    Kong, J. A., Electromagnetic Wave Theory, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
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    Tsang, L., and J. A. Kong, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Random Media with Strong Permittivity Fluctuations,” Radio Science, 16, 303–320, 1981.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
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    Tsang, L., and J. A. Kong, “Application of Strong Fluctuation Random Medium Theory to Scattering from Vegetation-like Half Space,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-19, 62–69, 1981.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. V. Nghiem
    • 1
  • J. A. Kong
    • 1
  • T. Le Toan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of ElectronicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Centre d’Etude Spatiale des RayonnementsCNRSToulouseFrance

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