Directions in Electromagnetic Wave Modeling pp 171-184 | Cite as

# Direct Maxwell’s Equation Solvers in Time and Frequency Domains — A Review

## Abstract

In this paper, we present a brief review of partial differential equation (PDE) techniques for solving the problems of electromagnetic scattering from complex bodies and circuit modeling of microwave components. Radar targets as well as microwave circuits in use today often possess intricate geometries and comprise of materials with highly inhomogeneous properties. One consequence of this is that the analytical and asymptotical techniques can seldom be used to solve the field problems in these geometries with sufficient accuracy, and even the application of the integral equation approach, e.g., the Method of Moments, becomes rather involved. However, the direct solution of Maxwell’s equations using PDEs, such as the finite element (FEM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods, offers an attractive alternative for analyzing these complex problems conveniently, reliably and accurately.

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