Advertisement

Schizophrenie Psychoses: Prediction and Prevalence

  • Kurt Hahlweg
Chapter
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

Schizophrenic psychoses are among the most serious psychiatric illnesses. Emil Kraepelin, German psychiatrist and founder of this still valid psychiatric illness concept, introduced the term “Dementia Praecox” in 1896 and chose the name because of the (allegedly) irreversible intellectual decline and the early onset of the illness (Kraepelin, 1904). The term “schizophrenia” was coined by Bleuler in 1911. He chose the designation because the disorder lay, in his estimation, in the division of the consciousness from the total personality (Greek: schizo = I split, phren = mind). Kraepelin proceeded from the idea of a purely physical illness whose causes were not yet known, and chose therefore also the designation endogenous psychosis.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (3rd edition). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.:AuthorGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, CM. (1986). The all-too-short trip from positive to negative connotation. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 12, 351–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, CM., Reiss, DJ., Hogarty, G. (1986). Schizophrenia and the family. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, G., Hall, W., Goldstein, G., Lapsley, H., Bartels, R., Silove, D.(1985). The economic costs of schizophrenia. Implications for public policy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 537–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateson, G., Jackson, D.D., Haley, J., Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bleuler, E. (1911). Dementia Praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien. In G. Aschaffenburg (Ed.) Handbuch der Psychiatrie, spez. Teil, 4. Abtig., 1. Hälfte. Deuticke, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  7. Bleuler, M. (1972). Die schizophrenen Geistestörungen im Lichte langjähriger Kranken- und Familiengeschichten. Stuttgart: Thieme.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, G.W., Birley, J.L.T., Wing, J.K. (1972). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ciompi, L., Müller, C (1976). Lebensweg und Alter der Schizophrenen. Eine katamnestische Langzeituntersuchung bis ins Senium. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Creer, G, Wing, J.K. (1984). Der Alltag mit Schizophrenen. In H. Katschnig (Ed.), Die andere Seite der Schizophrenie, 2. Aufl. (S 97–166). München: Urban & Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, J.M., Janicak, P., Chang, S., Klerman, K. (1982). Recent advances in the pharmacologic treatment of the schizophrenic disorders. In L. Grinspoon (Ed.) Psychiatry. The American association annual review. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  12. Doane, J.A., Falloon, I.R.H., Goldstein, M.J., Mintz, J. (1985). Parental affective style and the treatment of schizophrenia: Predicting course of illness and social functioning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 34–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Falloon, I.R.H., McGill, C.W., Boyd, J.L. (1984). Family care of schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fiedler, P., Niedermeier, T., Mundt, C. (1986). Gruppenarbeit mit Angehörigen schizophrener Patienten. Materialien für die therapeutische Arbeit mit Angehörigen und Familien. München, Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union.Google Scholar
  15. Goldstein, M.J. (1987). Psychosocial issues. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 157–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldstein, M.J., Hand, I., Hahlweg, K. (1986). Treatment of schizophrenia: Family assessment and intervention. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldstein, M.J., Rodnick, E.H., Evans, J.R., May, P.R.A., Steinberg, M.R. (1978) Drug and family therapy in the aftercare of acute schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, M.J., Strachan, A. (1987). The family and schizophrenia. In T. Jacob (Ed.), Family interaction and psychopathology. New York, London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gottesman, I.I., Shields, J. (1982). Schizophrenia: The epigenetic puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Häfher, H. (1989). Ist Schizophrenie eine Krankheit? Epidemiologische Daten und spekulative Folgerungen. Nervenarzt, 60, 191–199.Google Scholar
  21. Hahlweg, K. (1986). Einfluss der Familieninteraktion auf Entstehung, Verlauf und Therapie schizophrener Störungen. In E. Nordmann, M. Cierpka (Eds.), Familienforschung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Hahlweg, K., Feinstein, E., Mueller, U., Dose, M. (1989). Familienbetreuung schizophrener Patienten: Rückfallprophylaxe und Änderung der familiären Kommunikationsmuster. In H. Brenner, W. Böker (Eds.), Die Rolle intermediärer Prozesse für Verständnis und Therapie der Schizophrenie (pp. 243–255). Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  23. Hahlweg, K., Goldstein, M.J., Nuechterlein, K.H., Magana, A., Mintz, J., Doane, J., Miklowitz, D.J., Snyder, K.S. (1989). Interactional sequences in high and low EE families of schizophrenic patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hahlweg, K., Nuechterlein, K.H., Goldstein, M.J., Magana, A., Doane, J.A., Snyder, K.S., Mintz, J. (1987). Parental expressed emotion attitudes and intrafamilial communication behavior. In K. Hahlweg, M.J. Goldstein (Eds.), Understanding major mental disorder: The contribution of family interaction research (pp. 156–175). New York: Family Process Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hahlweg, K., Reisner, L., Kohli, G., Vollmer, M., Schindler, L., Revenstorf, D. (1984). Development and validity of a new system to analyze interpersonal communication (KPI). In K. Hahlweg, N.S. Jacobson (Eds.), Marital interaction: Analysis and modification. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Harding, C., Brooks, G.W., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J.S., Breier, A. (1987). The Vermont longitudinal study: II. Long-term outcome of subjects who once met the criteria for DSM-III schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 718–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hogarty, G.E., Anderson, C.M., Reiss, DJ., Komblith, S.J., Greenwald, D.P., Javna, C.D., Madonia, M.J. (1986). Family psychoeducation, social skills training and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare treatment of schizophrenia: I. One year effects of a controlled study on relapse and expressed emotion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 633–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hogarty, G.E., Schooler, N.R., Ulrich, R., Mussore, F., Ferro, P., Herron, E. (1979). Fluphenazine and social therapy in the aftercare of schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1283–1294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hooley, J.M., Hahlweg, K. (1986). The marriages and interaction patterns of depressed patients and their spouses: Comparison of high and low EE dyads. In M.J. Goldstein, L. Hand, K. Hahlweg (Eds.) Treatment of schizophrenia: Family assessment and intervention (pp. 85–95). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hooley, J.M., Orley, J., Teasdale, J.D. (1986). Levels of expressed emotion and relapse in depressed patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 642–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huber, G., Gross, G., Schüttler, R. (1979). Schizophrenie. Eine Verlaufs- und sozialpsychiatrische Langzeitstudie. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Jablenski, A., Sartorius, N., Ernberg, G., Anker, M., Korten, A., Cooper, J.E., Day, R. (in press). Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence, and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychological Medicine.Google Scholar
  33. Jacob, T. (1975). Family interaction in disturbed and normal families: A methodological and substantive review. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 33–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kane, J.M., Woerner, M., Weinhold, P., Wegner, B., Kinon, B. (1982). A prospeaive study of tardive dyskinesia development: Preliminary results. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2, 345–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kraepelin, E. (1904). Psychiatric Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte (7th edition). Leipzig: Barth.Google Scholar
  36. Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Eberlein-Vries, R., Sturgeon, D. (1986). Controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients. In M.J. Goldstein, I. Hand, K. Hahlweg (Eds.), Treatment of schizophrenia: Family assessment and invention (pp. 153–170). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liberman, R.P., Jacobs, H.E., et al. (1986). Fertigkeitentraining zur Anpassung Schizophrener an die Gemeinschaft. In W. Böker, H.D. Brenner (Eds.), Bewältigung der Schizophrenie. Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  38. Miklowitz, D.J., Goldstein, M.J., Nuechterlein, K.H., Snyder, K.S., Doane, J.A. (1987). The family and the course of recent onset mania. In K. Hahlweg, M.J. Goldstein (Eds.) Understanding major mental disorder: The contribution of family interaction research (pp. 195–211). New York: Family Process Press.Google Scholar
  39. Müller, U., Hahlweg, K., Feinstein, E., Dose, M. (1989). Familieninteraktion und “Expressed Emotion”. In G. Buchkremer, N. Rath (Eds.), Therapeutische Arbeit mit Angehörigen schizophrener Patienten (pp. 47–51).Google Scholar
  40. Nuechterlein, K.H., Dawson, M.E. (1984). A heuristic vulnerability-stress model of schizophrenic episodes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 300–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Riecher, A., Häfner, H., Maurer, K., Löffler, W., Fätkenheuer, B., Munk-Jorgensen, P., Strömgren, E. (1989). Sex differences in age at onset and course of schizophrenic disorders. Paper presented at the 2nd conference “Search for the causes of schizophrenia”, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  42. Roder, V., Brenner, H.D., Kienzle, N., Hodel, B. (1988). Integriertes psychologisches Therapieprogramm für schizophrene Patienten. Weinheim, München: Psychologie Verlags Union.Google Scholar
  43. Paul, G.L., Lentz, R.J. (1977). Psychological treatment of chronic mental patients. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Sartorius, N., Jablenski, A., Shapiro, R. (1978). Cross-cultural differences in the short-term prognosis of schizophrenic psychoses. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 102–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scheff, T.J. (1966). Being mentally ill. A sociological theory. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  46. Strachan, A.M., Goldstein, M.J., Miklowitz, D.J. (1986). Do relatives express expressed emotion? In M.J. Goldstein, I. Hand, K. Hahlweg (Eds.), Treatment of schizophrenia: Family assessment and intervention (pp. 51–58). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tarrier, N., Barrowclough, C., Vaughn, C., Bamrah, J.S., Porceddu, K., Watts, S., Freeman, H. (1988). Community management of schizophrenia: A two year follow-up of a behavioural intervention with families. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 625–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tölle, R., Huber, G. (1988). Psychiatrie (8th edition). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vaughn, C.E., Leff, J.P. (1976). The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Watt, N.F., Antony, E.J., Wynne, L.C., Roif, J.E. (Eds.) (1984). Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Zubin, J., Spring, B. (1977). Vulnerability — a new view of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 103–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Hahlweg
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PsychologieTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

Personalised recommendations