Advertisement

The Gene pp 415-495 | Cite as

Complex Genes

  • Lawrence S. Dillon
Chapter
  • 500 Downloads

Abstract

Thus far in this analysis, only those genes have been examined that simply encode a single product, whether an RNA or a protein. Although often the coding sequences have been found to be interrupted by untranslated sectors, the presence of such introns had no effect on the immediate product of translation, because of their removal before that process occurred. But now the point has been reached where the dictum “one gene, one peptide” loses its validity, for in the several major classes of genes that receive attention in this chapter two or more distinct proteins are encoded in every case. Each of these products must undergo processing before the main component (or components) is able to function. The simpler of the diverse complex genes is that class, earlier named diplomorphic (Chapter 1, Section 1.1.3), that codes for a double translational product. As a rule, but not always, the bulk of the transcript becomes translated into an active enzymic or structural protein; in addition, this bears a prefatory peptide that appears to be requisite for the protein to pass through a membrane. The latter may be either the cytoplasmic covering or the sheath that encloses an organelle, such as a mitochondrion, chloroplast, Golgi body, or endoreticulum.

Keywords

Cleavage Site Basic Amino Acid Hydrophobic Amino Acid Transit Peptide Neutral Protease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alt, J., and Herrmann, R. G. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for preapocytochrome fin the spinach plastid genome. Curr. Genet. 8: 550–558.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, O. D., Litts, J. C., Gautier, M. F., and Greene, F. C. 1984. Nucleic acid sequence and chromosome arrangement of a wheat storage protein gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 8129–8144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, D. W., Walter, P., and Ottensmeyer, F. P. 1985. Structure of the signal recognition particle by electron microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 785–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arima, K., Oshima, T., Kubota, I., Nakamura, N., Mizunaga, T., and Tohe, A. 1983. The nucleotide sequence of the yeast PHO5 gene: A putative precursor of repressible acid phosphatase contains a signal peptide. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 1657–1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, J., Niemann, H., Smeekens, S., Rottier, P., and Warren, G. 1984. Sequence and topology of a model intracellular membrane protein, El glycoprotein, from a coronavirus. Nature (London) 308: 75 1752.Google Scholar
  6. Austen, B. M., Hermon-Taylor, J., Kaderbhai, M. A., and Ridd, D. H. 1984. Design and synthesis of a consensus signal sequence that inhibits protein translocation into rough microsomal vesicles. Biochem. J. 224: 317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajwa, W., Meyhack, B., Rudolph, H., Schweingruber, A. M., and Hinnen, A. 1984. Structural analysis of the two tandemly repeated acid phosphatase genes in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 7721–7739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bankaitis, V. A., Rasmussen, B. A., and Bassford, P. J. 1984. Intragenic suppressor mutations that restore export of maltose binding protein with a truncated signal peptide. Cell 37: 243–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bedouelle, H., Schmeissner, U., Hofnung, M., and Rosenberg, M. 1982. Promoters of the ma1EFG and malKlamB operons in Escherichia coli K12. J. Mol. Biol. 161: 519–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, G. I., Santerre, R. F., and Mullenbach, G. T. 1983a. Hamster preproglucagon contains the sequence of glucogon and two related peptides. Nature (London) 302: 716–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell, G. I., Sanchez-Pescador, R., Laybourn, P. J., and Najarian, R. C. 1983b. Exon duplication and divergence in the human preproglucagon gene. Nature (London) 304: 368–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belt, K. T., Carroll, M. C., and Porter, R. R. 1984. The structural basis of the multiple forms of human complement component C4. Cell 36: 907–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bensi, G., Raugei, G., Klefenz, H., and Cortese, R. 1985. Structure and expression of the human haptoglobin locus. EMBO J. 4: 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berg, L. S. 1940. Classification of fishes, both recent and fossil. Tray. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. USSR 5: 1–304.Google Scholar
  15. Boeke, J. D., and Model, P. 1982. A prokaryotic membrane anchor sequence: Carboxyl terminus of bacteriophage fl gene III protein retains it in the membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5200–5204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boel, E., Schwartz, T. W., Norris, K. E., and Fiil, N. P. 1984. A cDNA encoding a small common precursor for human pancreatic polypeptide and pancreatic icosapeptide. EMBO J. 3: 909–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boguski, M. S., Elshourbagy, N., Taylor, J. M., and Gordon, J. I. 1984. Rat apolipoprotein A-IV contains 13 tandem repetitions of a 22-amino acid segment with amphipathic helical potential. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5021–5025.Google Scholar
  18. Boorstein, W. R., Vamvakopoulos, N. C., and Fiddes, J. C. 1982. Human chorionic gonadotropin 3-subunit is encoded by at least eight genes arranged in tandem and inverted pairs. Nature (London) 300: 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bown, D., Levasseur, M., Croy, R. R. D., Boulter, D., and Gatehouse, J. A. 1985. Sequence of a pseudogene in the legumin gene family of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 4527–4538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braun, G., and Cole, S. T. 1983. Molecular characterization of the gene coding for major outer membrane protein OmpA from Enterobacter aerogenes. Eur. J. Biochem. 137: 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broglie, R., Coruzzi, G., Lamppa, G., Keith, B., and Chua, N. H. 1983. Structural analysis of nuclear genes coding for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulose-I,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Biotechnology 1: 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Byrne, B. M., von het Schip, A. D., von de Klundert, J. A. M., Amberg, A. C., Gruber, M., and AB, G. 1984. Amino acid sequence of phosvitin derived from the nucleotide sequence of part of the chicken vitellogenin gene. Biochemistry 23: 4275–4279.Google Scholar
  23. Carroll, M. C., Belt, T., Palsdottir, A., and Porter, R. R. 1984. Structure and organization of the C4 genes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 306: 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chin, W. W., Kronenberg, H. M., Dee, P. C., Maloof, F., and Habener, J. F. 1981. Nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the pre-a-subunit of mouse thyrotropin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 5329–5333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chin, W. W., Godine, J. E., Klein, D. R., Chang, A. S., Tan, L. K., and Habener, J. F. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the precursor of the 13 subunit of rat lutropin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4649–4653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cooke, N. E., Coit, D., Weiner, R. I., Baxter, J. D., and Martial, J. A. 1980. Structure of cloned DNA complementary to rat prolactin messenger RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 6502–6510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cooke, N. E., Coit, D., Shine, J., Baxter, J. D., and Martial, J. A. 1981. Human prolactin. cDNA structural analysis and evolutionary comparisons. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 4007–4016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coruzzi, G., Broglie, R., Cashmore, A., and Chua, N. H. 1983. Nucleotide sequences of two pea cDNA clones encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the major chlorophyll a/b-binding thylakoid polypeptide. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 1399–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Coruzzi, G., Broglie, R., Edwards, C., and Chua, N. H. 1984. Tissue-specific and light-regulated expression of a pea nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose- I,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. EMBO J. 3: 1671 1679.Google Scholar
  30. Craik, C. S., Choo, Q. L., Swift, G. H., Quinto, C., MacDonald, R. J., and Rutter, W. J. 1984. Structure of two related rat pancreatic trypsin genes. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14255–14264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crouch, M. L., Tenbarge, K. M., Simon, A. E., and Ferl, R. 1983. cDNA clones for Brassica napus seed storage proteins: Evidence from nucleotide sequence analysis that both subunits of napin are cleaved from a precursor polypeptide. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2: 273–283.Google Scholar
  32. de Bruijn, M. H. L., and Fey, G. H. 1985. Human complement component C3: cDNA coding sequence and derived primary structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 708–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Geus, P., Verheij, H. M., Riegman, N. H., Hoekstra, W. P. M., and de Haas, G. H. 1984. The pro-and mature forms of the E. coli K-12 outer membrane phospholipase A are identical. EMBO J. 3: 1799–1802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Deschenes, R. J., Haun, R. S., Funckes, C. L., and Dixon, J. E. 1985. A gene encoding rat cholecystokinin. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 1280–1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dillon, L. S. 1983. The Inconstant Gene, New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  36. Domoney, D., and Casey, R. 1985. Measurement of gene number for seed storage proteins in Pisum. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 687–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dons, J. J. M., Mulder, G. H., Rouwendal, G. J. A., Springer, J., Bremer, W., and Wessels, J. G. H. 1984. Sequence analysis of a split gene involved in fruiting from the fungus Shizophyllum commune. EMBO J. 3: 2101–2106.Google Scholar
  38. Dugaiczyk, A., Law, S. W., and Dennison, O. E. 1982. Nucleotide sequence and the encoded amino acids of human serum albumin mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ebina, Y., Ellis, L., Jarnagin, K., Edery, M., Graf, L., Clauser, E., Ou, J. H., Masiarz, F., Kan, Y. W., Goldfine, I. D., Roth, R. A., and Rutter, W. J. 1985. The human insulin receptor cDNA: The structural basis for hormone-activated transmembrane signalling. Cell 40: 747–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ehring, R., Beyreuther, K., Wright, J. K., and Overath, P. 1980. In vitro and in vivo products of E. coli lactose permease gene are identical. Nature (London) 283: 537–540.Google Scholar
  41. Elango, N., Satake, M., Coligan, J. E., Norrby, E., Camargo, E., and Venkatesan, S. 1985. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA, identification of cleavage activation site and amino acid sequence of N-terminus of F1 subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 1559–1574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elleman, T. C., and Hoyne, P. A. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding pilin of Bacteroides nodosus, the causal organism of ovine footrot. J. Bacteriol. 160: 1184–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Emr, S. D., and Silhavy, T. J. 1983. Importance of secondary structure in the signal sequence for protein secretion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4599–4603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Erwin, C. R., Croyle, M. L., Donelson, J. E., and Maurer, R. A. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for the a subunit of bovine pituitary glycoprotein hormones. Biochemistry 22: 4856–4860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fey, G. H., Lundwall, A., Wetsel, R. A., Zack, B. F., de Bruijn, M. H. L., and Domdey, H. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of murine complement protein C3. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 306: 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fiddes, J. C., and Goodman, H. M. 1979. Isolation, cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for the a-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Nature (London) 281: 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Finlay, B. B., Frost, L. S., and Paranchych, W. 1984. Localization, cloning, and sequence determination of the conjugative plasmid Co1B2 pilin gene. J. Bacteriol. 160: 402–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fojo, S. S., Law, S. W., and Brewer, H. B. 1984. Human apolipoprotein C-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preapolipoprotein C-II. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6354–6357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Forde, B. G., Kreis, M., Williamson, M. S., Fry, R. P., Pywell, J., Shewry, P. R., Bunce, N., and Miflin, B. J. 1985. Short tandem repeats shared by B- and C-hordein cDNAs suggest a common evolutionary origin for two groups of cereal storage protein genes. EMBO J. 4: 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Freudl, R., and Cole, S. T. 1983. Cloning and molecular characterization of the ompA gene from Salmonella typhimurium. Eur. J. Biochem. 134: 497–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Froshauer, S., and Beckwith, J. 1984. The nucleotide sequence of the gene for malF protein, an inner membrane component of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 10896–10903.Google Scholar
  52. Frost, L. S., Paranchych, W., and Willetts, N. S. 1984. DNA sequence of the F traALE region that includes the gene for F pilin. J. Bacteriol. 160: 395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fukusaki, E., Panbangred, W., Shinonyo, A., and Okada, H. 1984. The complete nucleotide sequence of the xylanase gene (xynA) of Bacillus pumilus. FEBS Lett. 171: 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Funckes, C. L., Minth, C. D., Deschenes, R., Magazin, M., Tavianini, M. A., Sheets, M., Collier, K., Weith, H. L., Aron, D. C., Roos, B. A., and Dixon, J. E. 1983. Cloning and characterization of a mRNAencoding rat preprosomatostatin. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 8781–8787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gennaro, M. L., and Greenaway, P. J. 1983. Nucleotide sequences within the cholera toxin operon. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 3855–3861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gluschankof, P., Morel, A., Benoit, R., and Cohen, P. 1985. The somatostatin-28 convertase of rat brain cortex generates both somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 (1–12). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128: 1051 1057.Google Scholar
  57. Godine, F. E., Chin, W. W., and Habener, J. F. 1982. a subunit of rat pituitary glycoprotein hormones. Primary structure of the precursor determined from the nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNAs. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 8368–8371.Google Scholar
  58. Goodall, G. J., Richardson, M., Furuichi, Y., Wodnar-Filipowicz, A., and Horecker, B. L. 1985. Sequence of a cloned 523-bp cDNA for thymosin B4. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 236: 445–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goodman, R. H., Jacobs, J. W., Chin, W. W., Lund, P. K., Dee, P. C., and Habener, J. F. 1980. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned structural gene coding for a precursor of pancreatic somatostatin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5869–5873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gordon, G., Gayda, R. C., and Markovitz, A. 1984. Sequence of the regulatory region of ompT, the gene specifying major outer membrane protein a(3b) of Escherichia coli K-12: Implications for regulation and processing. Mol. Gen. Genet. 193: 414–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gorin, M. B., Cooper, D. L., Eiferman, F., van de Rijn, P., and Tilghman, S. M. 1981. The evolution of afetoprotein and albumin. I. A comparison of the primary amino acid sequence of mammalian a-fetoprotein and albumin. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1954–1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gray, G. L., Smith, D. H., Baldridge, J. S., Harkins, R. N., Vasil, M. L., Chen, E. Y., and Heyneker, H. L. 1984. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the exotoxin A structural gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 2645–2649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Greenberg, R., and Groves, M. L. 1984. Plasmin cleaves human 13-casein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 125: 463–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gubbins, E. J., Maurer, R. A., Hartley, J. L., and Donelson, J. E. 1979. Construction and analysis of recombinant DNAs containing a structural gene for rat prolactin. Nucleic Acids Res. 6: 915–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gubler, U., Seeburg, P., Hoffman, B. J., Gage, L. P., and Udenfriend, S. 1982. Molecular cloning establishes proenkephalin as precursor of enkephalin-containing peptide. Nature (London) 295: 206–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gubler, U., Monahan, J. J., Lomedico, P. T., Bhatt, R. S., Collier, K. J., Hoffman, B. J., Böhlen, P., Esch, F., Ling, N., Zeytin, F., Brazeau, P., Pooniman, M. S., Gage, L. P. 1983. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the precursor of human growth hormone-releasing factor, somatocrinin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4311–4314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gubler, U., Chua., A. O., Hoffman, B. J., Collier, K. J., and Eng, J. 1984. Cloned cDNA to cholecystokinin mRNA predicts an identical preprocholecystokinin in pig brain and gut. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4307–4310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gun, J. A., Catterall, J. F., and Kourides, I. A. 1983. Cloning of cDNA encoding the pre-(3 subunit of mouse thyrotropin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 2122–2126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hahn, V., Winkler, J., Rapoport, T. A., Liebscher, D. H., Contelle, C., and Rosenthal, S. 1983. Carp preproinsulin cDNA sequence and evolution of insulin genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 4541–4552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hall, L., Laird, J. E., and Craig, R. K. 1984. Nucleotide sequence determination of guinea-pig casein 13 mRNA reveals homology with bovine and rat as, caseins and conservation of the non-coding regions of the mRNA. Biochem. J. 222: 561–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hall, M. N., Hereford, L., and Herskowitz, I. 1984. Targeting of E. coli ß-galactosidase to the nucleus in yeast. Cell 36: 1057–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hannink, M., and Donoghue, D. J. 1984. Requirement for a signal sequence in biological expression of the v-sis oncogene. Science 226: 1197–1199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hefford, M. A., Evans, R. M., Oda, G., and Kaplan, H. 1985. Unusual chemical properties of N-terminal histidine residues of glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide. Biochemistry 24: 867–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Heinrich, G., Kronenberg, H. M., Potts, J. T., and Habener, J. F. 1984a. Gene encoding parathyroid hormone. Nucleotide sequence of the rat gene and deduced amino acid sequence of the rat preproparathyroid hormone. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 3320–3329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Heinrich, G., Gros, P., and Habener, J. F. 1984b. Glucagon gene sequence. Four of six exons encode separate functional domains of rat pre-proglucagon. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14082–14087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Heller, K., and Kadner, R. J. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for the vitamin B 12 receptor protein in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 161: 904–908.Google Scholar
  77. Higgins, C. F., Haag, P. D., Nikaido, K., Ardeshir, F., Garcia, G., and Ames, G. F. L. 1982. Complete nucleotide sequence and identification of membrane components of the histidine transport operon of S. typhimurium. Nature (London) 298: 723–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hobart, P. M., Crawford, R., Shen, L. P., Pictet, R., and Rutter, W. J. 1980. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding two distinct somatostatin precursors found in the endocrine pancreas of anglerfish. Nature (London) 288: 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hobart, P. M., Fogliano, M., O’Connor, B. A., Schaefer, I. M., and Chirgwin, J. M. 1984. Human renin gene: Structure and sequence analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5026–5030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoffman, L. M., Ma, Y., and Barker, R. F. 1982. Molecular cloning of Phaseolus vulgaris lectin mRNA and use of cDNA as a probe to estimate lectin transcript levels in various tissues. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 7819–7828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Holland, E. C., Leung, J. O., and Drickamer, K. 1984. Rat liver asialoglycoprotein receptor lacks a cleavable NH2-terminal signal sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 7338–7342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hope, I. A., Mackay, M., Hyde, J. E., Goman, M. and Scaife, J. 1985. The gene for an exported antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Horwich, A. L., Kalousek, F., Mellman, I., and Rosenberg, L. E. 1985a. A leader peptide is sufficient to direct mitochondrial import of a chimeric chain. EMBO J. 4: 1129–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Horwich, A. L., Kalousek, F., and Rosenberg, L. E. 1985b. Arginine in the leader peptide is required for both import and proteolytic cleavage of a mitochondrial precursor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 4930–4933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hughes, J., Smith, T. W., Kosterlitz, H. W., Fothergill, L. A., Morgan, B. A., and Morris, H. R. 1979. Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity. Nature (London) 258: 577–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hurt, E. C., Pesold-Hurt, B., and Schatz, G. 1984. The cleavable prepiece of an imported mitochondrial protein is sufficient to direct cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase into the mitochondrial matrix. FEBS Lett. 178: 306–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Iatrou, K., Tsitilous, S. G., and Kafatos, F. C. 1984. DNA sequence transfer between two high-cysteine chorion gene families in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4452–4456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Innis, M. A., Tokunaga, M., Williams, M. E., Loranger, J. M., Chang, S. Y., Chang, S., and Wu, H. C. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli prolipoprotein signal peptidase (lsp) gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 3708–3712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Inokuchi, K., Mutoh, N., Matsuyama, S., and Mizushima, S. 1982. Primary structure of the ompF gene that codes for a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 6957–6968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ivell, R., and Richter, D. 1984a. Structure and comparison of the oxytocin and vasopressin genes from rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 2006–2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ivell, R., and Richter, D. 1984b. The gene for the hypothalamic peptide hormone oxytocin is highly expressed in the bovine corpus luteum: Biosynthesis, structure and sequence analysis. EMBO J. 3: 2351–2354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jameson, L., Chin, W. W., Hollenberg, A. N., Chang, A. S., and Habener, J. F. 1984. The gene encoding the 13 subunit of rat luteinizing hormone. Analysis of gene structure and evolution of nucleotide sequence. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 15474–15480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jung, A., Sippel, A. E., Grez, M., and Shütz, G. 1980. Exons encode functional and structural units of chicken lysozyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5759–5763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kaczorek, M., Delpeyroux, F., Chenciner, N., Streeck, R. E., Murphy, J. R. Boquet, P., and Tiollais, P. 1983. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the diptheria tox228 gene in Escherichia coli. Science 221: 855–858.Google Scholar
  95. Kageyama, R., Ohkubo, H., and Nakanishi, S. 1984. Primary structure of human preangiotensinogen deduced from the cloned cDNA sequence. Biochemistry 23: 3603–3609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kaput, J., Goltz, S., and Blobel, G. 1982. Nucleotide sequence of the yeast nuclear gene for cytochrome c peroxidase precursor. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 15054–15058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Karathanasis, S. K., Zannis, V. I., and Breslow, J. L. 1983. Isolation and characterization of the human apolipoprotein A-I gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 6147–6151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kasarda, D. D., Okita, T. W., Bernardin, J. E., Baecker, P. A., Nimmo, C. C., Lew, E. J. L., Dietler, M. D., and Greene, F. C. 1984. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of o-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4712–4716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kato, K., Hayashizaki, Y., Takahashi, Y., Himino, S., and Matsubara, K. 1983. Molecular cloning of the human gastrin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 8197–8203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kaufman, J. F., Auffray, C., Korman, A. J., Shackelford, D. A., and Strominger, J. 1984. The class II molecules of the human and murine major histocompatibility complex. Cell 36: 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kennedy, B. P., Marsden, J. J., Flynn, T. G., de Bold, A. J., and Davies, P. L. 1984. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of a cloned cardionatrin cDNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 122: 1076–1082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kitamura, N., Takagaki, Y., Furuto, S., Tanaka, T., Nawa, H., and Nakanishi, S. 1983. A single gene for bovine high molecular weight and low molecular weight kininogens. Nature (London) 305: 545–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kitamura, N., Kitagawa, H., Fukushima, D., Takagaki, Y., Miyata, T., and Nakanishi, S. 1985. Structural organization of the human kininogen gene and a model for its evolution. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 8610–8617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Klemm, P. 1984. The fimA gene encoding the type-1 fimbriâl subunit of Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 143: 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Knott, T. J., Robertson, M. E., Priestley, L. M., Wallis, S., and Scott, J. 1984a. Characterisation of mRNAs encoding the precursor for human apolipoprotein CI. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 3909–3915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Knott, T. J., Priestley, L. M., Urdea, M., and Scott, J. 1984b. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the precursor for human apolipoprotein AII. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120: 732–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kreis, M., Rahman, S., Forde, B. G., Pywell, J., Shewry, P. R., and Miflin, B. J. 1983. Sub-families of hordein mRNA encoded at the Hor2 locus of barley. Mol. Gen. Genet. 191: 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kurjan, J., and Herskowitz, I. 1982. Structure of a yeast pheromone gene (MEa): A putative a-factor precursor contains four tandem copies of mature a-factor. Cell 30: 933–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kuwano, R., Araki, K., Usui, H., Fukui, T., Othsuka, E., Ikehara, M., and Takahashi, Y. 1984. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for rat brain cholecystokinin precursor. J. Biochem. 96: 923–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lackner, K. J., Law, S. W., and Brewer, H. B. 1984. Human apolipoprotein A-II: Complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapolipoprotein A-II. FEBS Lett. F 5: 159–164.Google Scholar
  111. Lamb, F. I., Roberts, L. M., and Lord, J. M. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA coding for preproricin. Eur. J. Biochem. 148: 265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Land, H., Schatz, G., Schmale, H., and Richter, D. 1982. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA encoding bovine arginine vasopressin-neurophycin II precursor. Nature (London) 295: 299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Law, S. W., and Brewer, H. B. 1984. Nucleotide sequence and the encoded amino acids of human apolipoprotein A-I mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 66–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Law, S. W., and Dugaiczyk, A. 1982. Homology between the primary structure of a-fetoprotein, deduced from a complete cDNA sequence, and serum albumin. Nature (London) 291: 201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Legon, S., Glover, D. M., Hughes, J., Lowry, P. J., Rigby, P. W. J., and Watson, C. J. 1982. The structure and expression of the preproenkephalin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 7905–7918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. LeMeur, M. A., Galliot, B., and Gerlinger. P. 1984. Termination of the ovalbumin gene transcription. EMBO J. 3: 2779–2786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Le Moullec, J. M., Jullienne, A., Chenais, J., Lasmoles, F., Guliana, J. M., Milhaud, G., and Moukhtar, M. S. 1984. The complete sequence of human preprocalcitonin. FEBS Lett. 167: 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lentz, S. R., Birken, S., Lustbader, J., and Boime, I. 1984. Posttranslational modification of the carboxylterminal region of the 13 subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Biochemistry 23: 5330–5337.Google Scholar
  119. Le Roith, D., Pickens, W., Vinik, A. I., and Shiloach, J. 1985. Bacillus subtilis contains multiple forms of somatostatin-like material. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127: 713–719.Google Scholar
  120. Leytus, S. P., Chung, D. W., Kisiel, W., Kurachi, K., and Davie, E. W. 1984. Characterization of a cDNA coding for human factor X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 3699–3702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Limbach, K. J., and Wu, R. 1985a. Characterization of a mouse somatic cytochrome c gene and three cytochrome c pseudogenes. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 617–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Limbach, K. J., and Wu, R. 1985b. Characterization of two Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome c genes and their transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 631–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Linzer, D. I. H., and Nathans, D. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of a growth-related mRNA encoding a member of the prolactin-growth hormone family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4255–4259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Linzer, D. I. H., and Talamantes, F. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of mouse prolactin and growth hormone mRNAs and expression of these mRNAs during pregnancy. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 9574–9579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Lockman, H. A., Galen, J. E., and Kaper, J. B. 1984. Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin genes: Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA encoding ADP-ribosyltransferase. J. Bacteriol. 159: 1086–1089.Google Scholar
  126. Lomax, M. I., Bachman, N. J., Nasoff, M. S., Caruthers, M. H., and Grossman, L. I. 1984. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for bovine cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6295–6299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Long, G. L., Chandra, T., Woo, S. L. C., Davie, E. W., and Kurachi, K. 1984a. Complete sequence of the cDNA for human a1-antitrypsin and the gene for the S variant. Biochemistry 23: 4828–4837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Long, G. L., Belagaje, R. M., and MacGillivray, R. T. A. 1984b. Cloning and sequencing of liver eDNA coding for bovine protein C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5653–5656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lopez, L. C., Frazier, M. L., Su, C. J., Kumar, A., and Saunders, G. F. 1983. Mammalian pancreatic preproglucagon contains three glucagon-related peptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 5485–5489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lund, P. K., Goodman, R. H., Montminy, M. R., Dee, P. C., and Habener, J. F. 1983. Anglerfish islet preproglucagon II. Nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequence of the cDNA. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 3280–3284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lund, P. K., Moats-Staats, B. M., Simmons, J. G., Hoyt, E., D’Ercole, J., Martin, F., and Van Wyk, J. J. 1985. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding human ubiquitin reveals that ubiquitin is synthesized as a precursor. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 7609–7613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lundwall, A. B., Wetsel, R. A., Kristensen, T., Whitehead, A. S., Woods, D. E., Ogden, R. C., Colten, H. R., and Tack, B. F. 1985. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the fifth complement component. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 2108–2112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lycett, G. W., Delauney, A. J., Gatehouse, J. A., Gilroy, J., Croy, R. R. D., and Boulter, D. 1983. The vicilin gene family of pea (Pisum sativum L.): A complete cDNA coding sequence for preprovicilin. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 2367–2380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lycett, G. W., Croy, R. R. D., Shirsat, A. H., and Boulter, D. 1984. The complete nucleotide sequence of a legumin gene from pea (Pisum sativum L.). Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 4493–4506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Maarse, A. C., Van Loon, A. P. G. M., Riezman, H., Gregor, I., Schatz, G., and Grivell, L. A. 1984. Subunit IV of yeast cytochrome c oxidase: cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene and partial amino acid sequencing of the mature protein. EMBO J. 3: 2831–2837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Magazin, M., Minth, C. D., Funckes, C. L., Deschenes, R., Tavianini, M. A., and Dixon, J. E. 1982. Sequence of a cDNA encoding pancreatic preprosomatostatin-22. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 51525156.Google Scholar
  137. Majzoub, J. A., Pappey, A., Burg, R., and Habener, J. F. 1984. Vasopressin gene is expressed at low levels in the hypothalamus of the Brattleboro rat. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5296–5299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Maki, M., Parmentier, M., and Ingami, T. 1984. Cloning of genomic DNA for human atrial natriuretic factor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 125: 797–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Martial, J. A., Hallewell, R. A., Baxter, J. D., and Goodman, H. M. 1979. Human growth hormone: Complementary DNA cloning and expression in bacteria. Science 205: 602–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mason, A. J., Evans, B. A., Cox, D. R., Shine, J., and Richards, R. I. 1983. Structure of mouse kallikrein gene family suggests a role in specific processing of biologically active peptides. Nature (London) 303: 300–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Mauff, G., Stener, M., and Bender, K. 1983. The C4B chain: Evidence for genetically determined polymorphism. Hum. Genet. 64: 186–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Maurer, R. A., Croyle, M. L., and Donelson, J. E. 1984. The sequence of a cloned cDNA for the 13 subunit of bovine thyrotropin predicts a protein containing both NH2 and COOH terminal extensions. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 5024–5027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mayo, K. E., Cerelli, G. M., Lebo, R. V., Bruce, B. D., Rosenfeld, M. G., and Evans, R. M. 1985. Gene encoding human growth hormone-releasing factor precursor: Structure, sequence, and chromosomal assignment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 63–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Michaelis, S., and Beckwith, J. 1982. Mechanism of incorporation of cell envelope proteins in Escherichia coli. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 36: 435–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Miller, W. L., Martial, J. A., and Baxter, J. D. 1980. Molecular cloning of DNA complementary to bovine growth hormone in RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7521–7524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Minth, C. D., Taylor, W. L., Magazin, M., Tavianini, M., Collier, K., Weith, H. L., and Dixon, J. E. 1982. The structure of cloned DNA complementary to catfish pancreatic somatostatin-14 messenger RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 10372–10377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mita, S., Maeda, S., Shimada, K., and Araki, S. 1984. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human prealbumin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 124: 558–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Miyazaki, H., Kukamizu, A., Hirose, S., Hayashi, T., Hori, H., Ohkuba, H., Nakamishi, S., and Murakami, K. 1984. Structure of the human renin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5999–6003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mizuno, T., Wurtzel, E. T., and Inouye, M. 1982. Osmoregulation of gene expression. II. DNA sequence of the envZ gene of the ompB operon of E. coli and characterization of its gene product. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 13692–13698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mizuno, T., Chou, M. Y., and Inouye, M. 1983. A comparative study of the genes for three porins of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. DNA sequence of the osmoregulated ompC gene. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 6932–6940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Momma, T., Negoro, T., Udaka, K., and Fukizawa, C. 1985a. A complete cDNA coding for the sequence of glycinin A2B,a subunit precursor. FEBS Lett. 188: 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Momma, T., Negoro, T., Hirano, H., Matsumoto, A., Udaka, K., and Fukazawa, C. 1985b. Glycinin A5A4B3 mRNA: cDNA cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a splitting storage protein subunit of soybean. Eur. J. Biochem. 149: 491–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Montminy, M. R., Goodman, R. H., Horovitch, S. J., and Habener, J. F. 1984. Primary structure of the gene encoding rat preprosomatostatin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 3337–3340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mooi, F. R., van Buuren, M., Koopman, G., Roosendaal, B., and de Graf, F. K. 1984. K88ab gene of Escherichia coli encodes a fimbria-like protein distinct from the K88ab fimbrial adhesion. J. Bacteriol. 159: 482–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Moore, M. N., Kao, F. T., Tsao, Y. K., and Chan, L. 1984. Human apolipoprotein A-II: Nucleotide sequence of a cloned cDNA, and localization of its structural gene on human chromosome 1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Morinaga, T., Sakai, M., Wegmann, T. G., and Tamaoki, T. 1983. Primary structures of human a-fetoprotein and its mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 4604–4608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Morohashi, K., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Okada, Y., Sogawa, K., Hirose, T., Inayama, S., and Omura, T. 1984. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for mRNA of mitochondrial cytochrome P-450(SCC) of bovine adrenal cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4647–4651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Nawa, H., Kitamura, N., Hirose, T., Asai, M., Inayama, S., and Nakanishi, S. 1983. Primary structures of bovine liver low molecular weight kininogen precursors and their two mRNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 90–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Nishizawa, M., Hayakawa, Y., Yanaihara, N., and Okamoto, H. 1985. Nucleotide sequence divergence and functional constraint in VIP precursor mRNA evolution between human and rat. FEBS Lett. 183: 55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Noda, M., Furutani, Y., Takahashi, H., Toyosato, M., Hirose, T., Inayama, S., Nakanishi, S., and Numa, S. 1982. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for bovine adrenal preproenkephalin. Nature (London) 295: 202–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Oates, E., and Herbert, E. 1984. 5’ sequence of porcine and rat proopiomelanocortin mRNA. One porcine and two rat forms. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 7421–7425.Google Scholar
  162. Ohkuba, H., Kageyama, R., Ojihara, M., Hirose, T., Inayama, S., and Nakanishi, S. 1983. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for rat angiotensinogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 2196–2200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ohmura, K., Nakamura, K., Yamazaki, H., Shiroza, T., Yamane, K., Jigami, Y., Tanaka, H., Yoda, K., Yamasaki, M., and Tamura, G. 1984. Length and structural effect of signal peptides derived from Bacillus subtilis a-amylase on secretion of Escherichia coli 13-lactamase in B. subtilis cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 5307–5319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Okita, T. W., Cheesbrough, V., and Reeves, C. D. 1985. Evolution and heterogeneity of the a/ 3-type and titype gliadin DNA sequences. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 8203–8213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Patzelt, C., and Schiltz, E. 1984. Conversion of proglucagon in pancreatic alpha cells: The major end products are glucagon and a single peptide, the major proglucagon fragment, that contains two glucagon-like sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5007–5011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Pedersen, K., Devereux, J., Wilson, D. R., Sheldon, E., and Larkins, B. A. 1982. Cloning and sequence analysis reveal structural variation among related zein genes in maize. Cell 29: 1015–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Pinsky, S. D., LaForge, K. S., Luc, V., and Scheele, G. 1983. Identification of cDNA clones encoding secretory isoenzyme forms: Sequence determination of canine pancreatic prechymotrypsinogen 2 mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 7486–7490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Policastro, P., Ouitt, C. E., Hoshina, M., Fukuoka, H., Boothby, M. R., and Boime, I. 1983. The ß subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin is encoded by multiple genes. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 1 1492–11499.Google Scholar
  169. Prat, S., Cortadas, J., Pwigdomènech, P., and Palau, J. 1985. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of the maize endosperm protein glutelin-2. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 1493–1504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Qasba, P. K., and Safaya, S. K. 1984. Similarity of the nucleotide sequences of rat a-lactalbumin and chicken lysozyme genes. Nature (London) 308: 377–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rafalski, J. A., Scheets, K., Motzler, M., Peterson, D. M., Hedgcoth, C., and Söll, D. G. 1984. Developmentally regulated plant genes: The nucleotide sequence of a wheat gliadin genomic clone. EMBO J. 3: 1409 1415.Google Scholar
  172. Ramabhadran, T. V., Reitz, B. A., and Tiemeier, D. C. 1984. Synthesis and glycosylation of the common a subunit of human glycoprotein hormones in mouse cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6701–6705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rapoport, T. A. 1985. Extensions of the signal hypothesis-Sequential insertion model versus amphipathic tunnel hypothesis. FEBS Lett. 187: 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Reeck, G. R., and Hedgcoth, C. 1985. Amino acid sequence alignment of cereal storage proteins. FEES Lett. 180: 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Richter, K., Kawashima, E., Egger, R., and Kreil, G. 1984. Biosynthesis of thyrotropin releasing hormone in the skin of Xenopus laevis: Partial sequence of the precursor deduced from cloned cDNA. EMBO J. 3: 617621.Google Scholar
  176. Robert, L. S., Nozzolillo, C., and Altosaar, I. 1985. Homology between legumin-like polypeptides from cereals and pea. Biochem. J. 226: 847–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Rose, G. D., Geselowitz, A. R., Lesser, G. J., Lee, R. H., and Zehfus, M. H. 1985. Hydrophobicity of amino acid residues in globular proteins. Science 229: 834–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rosen, H., Douglass, J., and Herbert, E. 1984. Isolation and characterization of the rat proenkephalin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14309–14313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Roskam, W. G., and Rougeon, F. 1979. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone structural gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 7: 305–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sadler, I., Suda, K., Schatz, G., Kaudewitz, F., and Haid, A. 1984. Sequencing of the nuclear genes for the yeast cytochrome c1 precursor reveals an unusually complex amino-terminal presequence. EMBO J. 3: 2137–2143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Sakai, M., Morinaga, T., Urano, Y., Watanabe, K., Wegmann, T. G., and Tamaoki, T. 1985. The human a-fetoprotein gene. Sequence organization and the 5’ flanking region. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 5055–5060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sasavage, N. L., Nilson, J. H., Horowitz, S., and Rottman, F. M. 1981. Nucleotide sequence of bovine prolactin messenger RNA. Evidence for sequence polymorphism. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 678–682.Google Scholar
  183. Scarpulla, R. C. 1985. Association of a truncated cytochrome c processed pseudogene with a similarly truncated member from a long interspersed repeat family of rat. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 763–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Schreffler, D. C., Atkinson, J. P., Chan, A. C., Kasp, D. R., Killion, C. C., Ogata, R. T., and Rosa, P. A. 1984. The C4 and Slp genes of the complement region of the murine H-2 major histocompatibility complex. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 306: 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Schuler, M. A., Schmitt, E. S., and Beachy, R. N. 1982. Closely related families of genes code for the a and a subunits of the soybean 7S storage protein complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 8225–8244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Seeburg, P. H., and Adelman, J. P. 1984. Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Nature (London) 311: 666–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Selby, M. J., Barta, A., Baxter, J. D., Bell, G. I., and Eberhardt, N. L. 1984. Analysis of a major human chorionic somatomammotropin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 13131–13138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Shen, L. P., and Rutter, W. J. 1984. Sequence of the human somatostatin I gene. Science 224: 168–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Shen, L. P., Pictet, R. L., and Rutter, W. J. 1982. Human somatostatin I: Sequence of the cDNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 4575–4579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Shoulders, C. C., Kornblihtt, A. R., Munro, B. S., and Baralle, F. E. 1983. Gene structure of human apoliproprotein AI. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 2827–2837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sibakov, M., and Palva, I. 1984. Isolation and the 5’-end nucleotide sequence of Bacillus licheniformis a-amylase gene. Eur. J. Biochem. 145: 567–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Siliciano, P. G., and Tatchell, K. 1984. Transcription and regulatory signals at the mating type locus in yeast. Cell 37: 969–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Singh, A., Chen, E. Y., Lugovoy, J. M., Chang, C. N., Hitzeman, R. A., and Seeburg, P. H. 1983. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two discrete genes coding for the a-factor pheromone. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 4049–4063.Google Scholar
  194. Slightom, J. L., Sun, S. M., and Hall, T. C. 1983. Complete nucleotide sequence of a French bean storage protein gene: Phaseolin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1897–1901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Smith, S. M., Bedbrook, J., and Speirs, J. 1983. Characterisation of three cDNA clones encoding different mRNAs for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 8719–8734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Sogawa, K., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Mizukami, Y., Ichihara, Y., and Takahashi, K. 1983. Primary structure of human pepsinogen gene. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 5306–5311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Soliday, C. L., Flurkey, W. H., Okita, T. W., and Kolattukudy, P. E. 1984. Cloning and structure determination of cDNA for cutinase, an enzyme involved in fungal penetration of plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 3939–3943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sonnenberg, H., and Veress, A. T. 1984. Cellular mechanism of release of atrial natriuretic factor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 124: 443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sottrup-Jensen, L., Stepanik, T. M., Kristensen, T., LOnblad, P. B., Jones, C. M., Wierzbicki, D. M., Magnusson, S., Domdey, H., Wetsel, R. A., Lundwall, A., Tack, B. F., and Fey, G. H. 1985. Common evolutionary origin of a2-macroglobulin and complement components C3 and C4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Spena, A., Viotti, A., and Pirrotta, V. 1983. Two adjacent genomic zein sequences: Structure, organization and tissue-specific restriction pattern. J. Mol. Biol. 169: 799–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Spindel, E. R., Chin, W. W., Price, J., Rees, L. H., Besser, G. M., and Habener, J. F. 1984. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5699–5703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Steinmetz, M., and Hood, L. 1983. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex in mouse and man. Science 222: 727–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Stewart, A. F., Willis, I. M., and Mackinlay, A. G. 1984. Nucleotide sequences of bovine ash and K-casein cDNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 3895–3907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Stiekema, W. J., Wimpee, C. F., and Tobin, E. M. 1983. Nucleotide sequence encoding the precursor of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Lemna gibba LG3. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 8051–8066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sumner-Smith, M., Rafalski, J. A., Sugiyama, T., Stoll, M., and Soll, D. 1985. Conservation and variability of wheat a/ 3-gliadin genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 3905–3916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Swift, G. H., Dagorn, J. C., Ashley, P. L., Cummings, S. W., and MacDonald, R. J. 1982. Rat pancreatic kallikrein mRNA: Nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of the encoded preproenzyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 7263–7267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Swift, G. H., Craik, C. S., Stary, S. J., Quinto, C., Lahaie, R. G., Rutter, W. J., and MacDonald, R. J. 1984. Structure of the two related elastase genes expressed in the rat pancreas. J. Biol. Chem. 259:14271–14278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Takahara, M., Hibler, D. W., Barr, P. J., Gerlt, J. A., and Inouye, M. 1985. The ompA signal peptide directed secretion of staphylococcal nuclease A by Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 2670–2674.Google Scholar
  209. Takahashi, H., Nabeshima, Y., Nabeshima, Y.-I., Ogata, K., and Takeuchi, S. 1984. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of DNA complementary to human decidual prolactin mRNA. J. Biochem. 95: 1491–1499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Talbot, D. R., Adang, M. J., Slightom, J. L., and Hall, T. C. 1984. Size and organization of a multigene family encoding phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Mol. Gen. Genet. 198: 4249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Tanabe, T., Noda, M., Furutani, Y., Takai, T., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, K., Hirose, T., Inayama, S., and Numa, S. 1984. Primary sequence of 13 subunit precursor of calf acetylcholin receptor deduced from cDNA sequence. Eur. J. Biochem. 144: 11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Taussig, R., and Carlson, M. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of the yeast SUC2 gene for invertase. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 1943–1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Tavianini, M. A., Hayes, T. E., Magazin, M. D., Minth, C. D., and Dixon, J. E. 1984. Isolation, characterization, and DNA sequence of the rat somatostatin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 1 1 798–11803.Google Scholar
  214. Truong, A. T., Duez, C., Belayev, A., Renard, A., Pictet, R., Bell, G. I., and Martial, J. A. 1984. Isolation and characterization of the human prolactin gene. EMBO. J. 3: 429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Uhlén, M., Guss, B., Nilsson, B., Gatenbeck, S., Philipson, L., and Lindberg, M. 1984. Complete sequence of the staphylococcal gene encoding protein A. A gene evolved through multiple duplications. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 1695–1702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. van Die, I., and Bergmans, H. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the F72 fimbrial subunit of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Gene 32: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Van Heuverswyn, B., Streydio, C., Brocas, H., Refetoff, S., Dumont, J., and Vassart, G. 1984. Thyrotropin controls transcription of the thyroglobulin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5941–5945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Vasantha, N., Thompson, L. D., Rhodes, C., Banner, C., Nagle, J., and Filpula, D. 1984. Genes for alkaline protease and neutral protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens contain a large open reading frame between the regions coding for signal sequence and mature protein. J. Bacteriol. 159: 811–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Vasicek, T. J., McDevitt, B. E., Freeman, M. W., Fennick, B. J., Hendy, G. N., Potts, J. T., Rich, A., and Kronenberg, H. M. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of the human parathyroid hormone gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 2927–2931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Voight, J. 1985. Macromolecules released into the culture medium during the vegetative cell cycle of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Biochem. J. 226: 259–268.Google Scholar
  221. Weaver, C. A., Gordon, D. F., Kissil, M. S., Mead, D. A., and Kemper, B. 1984. Isolation and complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for bovine parathyroid hormone. Gene 28: 319–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Weigle, W. O., Goodman, M. G., Morgan, E. L., and Hugli, T. E. 1983. Regulation of immune response by components of the complement cascade and their activated fragments. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 6: 173–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Wells, J. A., Ferrari, E., Henner, D. J., Estell, D. A., and Chen, E. Y. 1983. Cloning sequencing and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 7911–7925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Wetsel, R. A., Lundwall, A, Davidson, F., Gibson, T., Tack, B. F., and Fey, G. H. 1984. Structure of a murine complement component C3.II. Nucleotide sequence of cloned complementary DNA coding for the a chain. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 13857–13862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Wikström, M., and Casey, R. 1985. The oxidation of exogenous cytochrome c by mitochondria. Resolution of a long-standing controversy. FEBS. Lett. 183: 293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Willey, D. L., Auffret, A. D., and Gray, J. C. I984a. Structure and topology of cytochromef in pea chloroplast membranes. Cell 36: 555–562.Google Scholar
  227. Willey, D. L., Howe, C. J., Auffret, A. D., Bowman, C. M., Dyer, T. A., and Gray, J. C. 1984b. Location and nucleotide sequence of the gene for cytochrome f in wheat chloroplast DNA. Mol. Gen. Genet. 194: 416–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Wolfe, P. B., Wickner, W., and Goodman, J. M. 1983. Sequence of the leader peptidase gene of Escherichia coli and the orientation of leader peptidase in the bacterial envelope. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 12073–12080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Wong, S. L., Price, C. W., Goldfarb, D. S., and Doi, R. H. 1984. The subtilisin E gene of Bacillus subtilis is transcribed from a Q37 promoter in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 1184–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Wright, R. M., Ko, C., Cumsky, M. G., and Poyton, R. O. 1984. Isolation and sequence of the structural gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 15401–15407.Google Scholar
  231. Wurtzel, E. T., Chou, M. Y., and Inouye, M. 1982. Osmoregulation of gene expression. I. DNA sequence of the ompR gene of the ompB operon of Escherichia coli and characterization of its gene product. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 13685–13691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Yamamoto, T., Nakazawa, T., Miyata, T., Kaji, A., and Yokota, T. 1984a. Evolution and structure of two ADP-ribosylation enterotoxins, Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin. FEBS Lett. 169: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Yamamoto, T., Tamura, T., and Yokota, T. 1984b. Primary structure of heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli pathogenic for humans. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 5037–5044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Yamashita, I., Suzuki, K., and Fukui, S. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of the extracellular glucoamylase gene STAJ in the yeast, Saccharomyces diastaticus. J. Bacteriol. 161: 567–573.Google Scholar
  235. Yoo, O. J., Powell, C. T., and Agarwal, K. L. 1982. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of full-length cDNA coding for porcine gastrin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 1049–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Yoshikawa, K., Williams, C., and Sabol, S. L. 1984. Rat brain preproenkephalin mRNA, cDNA cloning, primary structure, and distribution in the central nervous system. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14301–14308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Zannis, V. I., McPherson, J., Goldberger, G., Karathanasis, S. K., and Breslow, J. L. 1984. Synthesis, intracellular processing, and signal peptide of human apolipoprotein E. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 5495–5499.Google Scholar
  238. Zivin, R. A., Condra, J. H., Dixon, R. A. F., Seidah, N. G., Chretien, M., Nemer, M., Chamberland, M., and Dronin, J. 1984. Molecular cloning and characterization of DNA sequences encoding rat and human atrial natriuretic factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6325–6329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zwizinski, C., and Wickner, W. 1980. Purification and characterization of leader (signal) peptidase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7973–7977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence S. Dillon
    • 1
  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations