Detection of Viral Antigens and Antibodies

Enzyme Immunoassays
  • E. Kurstak
  • R. Marusyk
  • A. Salmi
  • L. Babiuk
  • C. Kurstak
  • M. Van Regenmortel
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 15)


Serological techniques have been the most widely used means of diagnosing viral diseases for years, but several of their shortcomings have shifted the emphasis toward the direct detection of antigens. Nevertheless, serological testing is still useful if it is impractical or impossible to demonstrate the presence of a viral antigen, e.g., measles virus, togavirus, rubella virus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Moreover, serological approaches are important in distinguishing between serotypes or isolates. Developments in the design of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and the production of monoclonal antibodies have permitted the development of techniques that have a specificity approaching or surpassing that required for clinical applications but that do not suffer from the serious drawbacks of classic methods.


Respiratory Syncytial Virus Plant Virus Viral Antigen Rabies Virus Measle Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams, A. N. and Barbara, D. J., 1982, The use of F(ab’)2-based ELISA to detect serological relationships among carlaviruses, Ann. Appl. Biol. 101:495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler-Storthz, K., Kendall, C., Kennedy, R. C., Henkel, R. D. and Dreesman, G. R., 1983, Biotin-avidin amplified enzyme immunoassays for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in clinical specimens, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:1329–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Kaissi, E., and Mostratos, A., 1983, Assessment of substrates for horseradish peroxidase in enzyme immunoassay, J. Immunol. Methods 58:127–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Moudallal, Z., Briand, J. P. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Monoclonal antibodies as probe of the antigenic structure of tobacco mosaic virus, EMBO J. 1:1005–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Al Moudallal, Z., Altschuh, D., Briand, J. P. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Comparative sensitivity of different ELISA procedures for detecting monoclonal antibodies, J. Immunol. Meth. 68:35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al Moudallal, Z., Briand, J. P. and Van Regenmortel, M H. V., 1985, The major part of the polypeptide chain of tobacco mosaic virus protein is antigenic, EMBO J. 4:1231–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Altschuh, D. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Localization of antigenic determinants of a viral protein by inhibition of enzyme immunosorbent essay (ELISA) with tryptic peptides, J. Immunol. Meth. 50:99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Altschuh, D. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1983, Refutation of the alleged antigenic relationship between an isometric and a rod-shaped plant virus, Int. J. Microbiol. 1:13–17.Google Scholar
  9. Altschuh, D., Al Moudallal, Z., Briand, J. P. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1985, Immunochemical studies of tobacco mosaic virus, VI. Attempts to localize viral epitopes with monoclonal antibodies, Molec. Immunol. 22:329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asher, L., Binn, L., and Marchwicki, R., 1987, Demonstration of hepatitis A virus in cell culture by electron microscopy with immunoperoxidase staining, J. Virol. Methods 15:323–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashley, C., Caul, E., and Paver, W., 1978, Astrovirus-associated gastroenteritis in children, J. Clin. Pathol. 31:939–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Atanasiu, P., Favre, S., Sisman, J., and Perrin, P., 1979, Glycosylation et propriétés isoélectriques des virus rabiques complets et défectifs, Ann. Microbiologie 130A:85–101.Google Scholar
  13. Babiuk, L., L’Italien, J., van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S., Zamb, T., Lawman, J., Hughes, G., and Gifford, G., 1987, Glycosylation et propriétés isoélectriques des virus rabiques complets et défectifs, Virology 159:57–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banttari, E. E., 1980, Sap extraction device for sampling potato leaves and tubers, Am. Potato J. 57:345–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barbara, D. J. and Clark, M. F., 1982, A simple indirect ELISA using F(ab’)2 fragments of immunoglobulin, J. Gen. Virol. 58:315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barbara, D. J., Clark, M. F., Thresh, J. M. and Casper, R., 1978, Rapid detection and serotyping of prunus necrotic ringspot virus in perennial crops by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ann. Appl. Biol. 90:395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barclay, W. S., and Al-Nakib, W., 1987, An ELISA for detection of rhinovirus specific antibody in serum and nasal secretion, Virol Methods 15:53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bar-Joseph, M. and Garnsey, S. M., 1981, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): Principles and applications for diagnosis of plant viruses, in: Plant Diseases and Vectors: Ecology and Epidemiology (K. Maramorosch and K. F. Harris, eds), pp. 35–39, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Bar-Joseph, M., Garnsey, S. M., Gonsalves, D., Moscovitz, M., Purcifull, D. E., Clark, M. F. and Loebenstein, G., 1979, The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of citrus tristeza virus, Phytopathology 69:190–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beards, G., Campbell, A., Cottrell, N., Peiris, J., Rees, N., Sanders, R., Shirley, A., Wood, H., and Flewett, T., 1984, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for rotavirus detection, J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:248–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bellamy, K., Rousseau, S., and Gardner, P., 1986, The development of an M antibody capture ELISA for rubella IgM, J. Virol. Methods 14:243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blacklow, N., Cukor, G., Bedigian, M., Echeverria, P., Greenberg, H., Schreiber, D., and Trier, J., 1979, Immune response and prevalence of antibody to Norwalk enteritis virus as determined by radioimmunoassay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:903–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bolin, S., McClurkin, A., and Coria, M., 1985, Effects of bovine viral diarrhea virus on the percentages and absolute numbers of circulating B and T lymphocytes in cattle, Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:2385–2387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Boué, A., Nicolas, A., and Montagnon, B., 1971, Reinfection with rubella in pregnant women. Lancet 1:1251–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brandsma, J., and Miller, G., 1980, Nucleic acid spot hybridization: rapid quantitative screening of lymphoid cell lines for Epstein-Barr viral DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 77:6851–6855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brandt, C., Kim, H., Rodriguez, W., Arrobio, J., Jeffries, B., Stallings, E., Lewis, C., Miles, A., Chanock, R., Kapikian, A., and Parrot, R., 1983, Pédiatric viral gastroenteritis during eight years of study, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Briand, J. P., Al Moudallal, Z. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Serological differentiation of tobamoviruses by means of monoclonal antibodies, J. Virol. Meth. 5:293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brack, C., Portetelle, D., Glineur, C., and Bollen, A., 1982, One-step purification of mouse monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid by DEAE Affi-Gel blue chromatography, J. Immunol. Methods 53:313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bran-Vezinet, F., Katlama, C., Roulot, D., Lenoble, L., Alizon, M., Madjar, J., Rey, M., Girard, P., Yeni, P., Clavel, F., Gadelle, S., and Harzic, M., 1987, Lymphadenopathy-associated viras type 2 in AIDS and AIDS-related complex, Lancet 1:128–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burke, D., Nisalak, A., and Ussery, M., 1982, Antibody capture immunoassay detection of Japanese encephalitis viras immunoglobulin M and G antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:1034–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burke, D., Brandt, B., Redfield, R., Tun-Hou, L., Thorn, R., Beltz, G., and Chung-Ho, H., 1987, Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency viras infection by immunoassay using a molecularly cloned and expressed viras envelope polypeptide. Comparison to Western blot on 2707 consecutive serum samples, Ann. Int. Med. 106:671–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burke, D., and Nisalak, A., 1982, Detection of Japanese encephalitis viras immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum by antibody capture radioimmunoassay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:353–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caciagli, P., Roggero, P. and Luisoni, E., 1985, Detection of maize rough dwarf viras by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plant hosts and in the planthopper vector, Ann. Appl. Biol. 107:463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Calisher, C., and Poland, J., 1980, In: Monath, T. (ed.). St. Louis Encephalitis, p. 371. Am. Public Health Assoc, Washington.Google Scholar
  35. Cappel, R., Hestermans, O., Touissant, C., Vereerstraeten, P., van Beers, D., de Braekeleer, J., and Schoutens, E., 1978, Cytomegalovirus infection and graft survival in renal graft recipients, Arch. Virology 56:149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carlebach, R., Raccah, B. and Loebenstein, G., 1982, Detection of potato virus Y in the aphid Myzus persicae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Ann. Appl. Biol. 101:511–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chang, H-C, Takashima, I., Arikawa, J., and Hashimoto, N., 1984, Biotin-labeled protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Japanese encephalitis antibody in sera from humans, swine, and several animal species, J. Virol. Methods 9:143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen, L.-C, Durand, D. P. and Hill, J. H., 1982, Detection of pathogenic strains of sobyean mosaic virus by enzyme-Inked immunosorbent assay with polystyrene plates and beads as the solid phase, Phytopathology 72:1177–1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chou, S., and Merigan, T., 1983, Rapid detection and quantitation of human cytomegalovirus in urine through DNA hybridization, New Engl. J. Med. 308:921–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Clark, M. F., 1981, Immunosorbent assays in plant pathology, Annu. Rev. Phytopathology 19:83–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clark, M. F. and Adams, A. N., 1977, Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 34:475–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clark, M. F. and Barbara, D. J., 1987, A method for the quantitative analysis of ELISA data, J. Virol. Meth. 15:213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clark, M. F. and Bar-Joseph, M., 1984, Enzyme immunosorbent assays in plant virology, Meth. Virol. 7:51–85.Google Scholar
  44. Clarke, R. G., Converse, R. H. and Kojima, M., 1980, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect potato leaf roll virus in potato tubers and viruliferous aphids, Plant Dis. 64:43–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Clavel, F., Guétard, D., Brun-Vézinet, F., Chamaret, S., Rey, M., Santos-Ferreira, M., Laurent, A., Dauguet, G., Katlama, C., and Rouzioux, C., 1986, Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients with AIDS, Science 233:343–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Coleman, R., Pereira, L., Bailey, P., Dondero, D., Wickliffe, C., and Nahmias, A., 1983, Determination of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cooper, D., Imrie, A., and Penny, R., 1987, Antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus after primary infection, J. Infect. Dis. 155:1113–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cradock-Watson, J., Ridehalgh, M., and Chantier, S., 1979, Specific immuno-globulins in infants with the congenital rubella syndrome, J. Hyg. 76:109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cranage, M., and Gardner, P., 1980, Systemic cell-mediated and antibody responses in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections, J. Med. Virol. 5:161–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crouch, C., Ohmann, H., Watts, T., and Babiuk, L., 1985, Chronic shedding of bovine enteric coronavirus antigen-antibody complexes by clinically normal cows, J. Gen. Virology 66:1489–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. De Jong, J., Wigand, R., Kidd, A., Wadell, G., Kapsenberg, J., Muzerie, C., Wermenbol, A., and Firtzlaff, R.-G., 1983, Candidate adenoviruses 40 and 41: Fastidious adenoviruses from human infant stool, J. Med. Virol. 11:215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dekker, E. L., Dore, I., Porta, C. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1987, Conformational specificity of monoclonal antibodies used in the diagnosis of tomato mosaic virus, Arch. Virol. 94:191–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. DeSanto, N., Tarro, G., Giordano, C., Capodicasa, G., Esposito, C., Flaminio, G., Sodano, G., Caropreso, M., Pluvio, M., and Giordano, D., 1987, Screening hemodialysis patients for infection with human immune deficiency virus (HIV), J. Infect. 14:229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Devergne, J. C., Cardin, L., Burckard, J. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1981, Comparison of direct and indirect ELISA for detecting antigenically related cucumoviruses, J. Virol. Meth. 3:193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Diaco, R., Hill, J. H., Hill, E. K., Tachibana, H. and Durand, D. P., 1985, Monoclonal antibody-based biotin-avidin ELISA for the detection of soybean mosaic virus in sobybean seeds, J. Gen. Virol. 66:2089–2094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Diaco, R., Lister, R. M., Hill, J. H. and Durand, D. P., 1986, Demonstration of serological relationships among isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus by using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, J. Gen. Virol. 67:353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Diaz-Mitoma, F., Preiksaitis, J., Leung, W., and Tyrell, D., 1987, DNA-DNA dot hybridization to detect Epstein-Barr virus in throat washings, J. Inf. Dis. 155:297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dietzgen, R. G. and Francki, R. I. B., 1987, Nonspecific binding of immunoglobulins to coat proteins of certain plant viruses in immunoblots and indirect ELISA, J. Virol. Meth. 15:159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dougherty, W. G., Willis, L. and Johnston, R. E., 1985, Topographic analysis of tobacco etch virus capsid protein epitopes, Virology 144:66–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Duebel, V., et al., 1983, Comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with standard tests used to detect yelow fever virus antibodies, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:565.Google Scholar
  61. Duermeyer, W., and van der Veen, J., 1978, Specific detection of IgM-antibodies by ELISA, applied in hepatitis-A, Lancet 2:684–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Edwards, M. L. and Cooper, J. I., 1985, Plant virus detection using a new form of indirect ELISA, J. Virol. Meth. 11:309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ehlers, U. and Paul, H. L., 1984, Binding of viruses from crude plant extracts to glutaraldehydetreated plates for indirect ELISA. J. Virol. Meth. 8:217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. El-Mekki, A., W. Al Nakib, and R. Bibi, 1987, Factors affecting the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine by sandwich enzyme immunoassay, J. Virol. Methods 15:75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Evans, R., Shanson, D., and Mortimer, P., 1987, Clinical evaluation of Abbott and Wellcome enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), J. Clin. Pathol. 40:552–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Feinman, S. V., 1984, Berris, B., Guha, A., Sooknanan, R., Bradley, D. W., Bond, W. W., and Maynard, J. E., 1984, DNA: DNA hybridization method for diagnosis of hepatitis B infection. J. Virol. Methods 8:199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Feigner, P., 1978, A new technique of heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, stick-ELISA. II. Application of stick-ELISA to antigens of various infective agents. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. I. Abt. Orig. A. 240:118–122.Google Scholar
  68. Flanders, R., Lindsay, P., Chairez, R., Brawner, T., Kumar, M., Swenson, P., and Bromberg, K., 1986, Evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus antigens using an enzyme immunoassay, J. Med. Virology 19:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Flewett, T., Davies, H., Bryden, A., and Robertson, M., 1974, Acute gastroenteritis associated with reovirus-like particles, J. Clin. Pathol. 27:608–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Flower, A., Banatvala, J., and Chrystie, I., 1977, BK antibody and virus-specific IgM responses in renal transplant recipients, patients with malignant disease, and healthy people, Brit. Med. J. 2:220–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Forghani, B., Myoraku, C., and Schmidt, N., 1982, Production of monoclonal antibodies to human IgM for assay of viral IgM antibodies, J. Virol. Method 5:317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Forghani, B., Myoraku, C., and Schmidt, N., 1983, Use of monoclonal antibodies to human immunoglobulin M in “capture” assays for measles and rubella immunoglobulin M, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:652–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Friguet, B., Djavadi-Ohaniance, L. and Goldberg, M. E., 1984, Some monoclonal antibodies raised with a native protein bind preferentially to the denatured antigen, Molec. Immunol. 21:673–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gaines, H., Sönnerborg, A., Czajkowski, J., Chiadi, F., Fenyö, E., Forsgren, M., Von Sydow, M., Pehrson, P., Albert, J., Moberg, L., and Asjö, B., 1987, Antibody response in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, Lancet 1:1249–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gardner, P., and McQuillin, J., 1968, Application of immunofluorescent antibody technique in rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection, Brit. Med. J. 3:340–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gardner, P. S., and Kaye, S., 1982, Egg globulins in rapid virus diagnosis, J. Virol. Meth. 4:257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gera, A., Loebenstein, G. and Raccah, B., 1978, Detection of cucumber mosaic virus in viruliferous aphids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Virology 86:542–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ghabrial, S. A. and Schultz, F. J., 1983, Serological detection of bean pod mottle virus in bean leaf beetles, Phytopathology 73:480–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gilljam, G., Sundqvist, V., Linde, A., Pihlstedt, P., Eklund, A., and Wahren, B., 1985, Sensitive analytic ELISA for subclass herpes virus IgG, J. Virol. Methods 10:203–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Goldwater, P., Webster, M., and Banatvala, J., 1982, Use of a simple, new test for virus-specific IgM to investigate an outbreak of influenza B in a hospitalized aged community, J. Virol. Methods 4:9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gonsalves, D., 1979, Detection of tomato ringspot virus in grapevines: A comparison of Che-nopodium quinoa and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Plant Dis. Rep. 63:962–965.Google Scholar
  82. Goudsmit, J., Woltors, E., Bakker, M., Smit, L., Van der Noordaa, J., Hische, E., Tutuarima, J., and van der Helm, H., 1986, Intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to HTLV-III in brains of patients without AIDS or AIDS-related complex, Brit. Med. J. 292:1231–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Guesdon, J.-L., Ternyck, T. and Avrameas, S., 1979, The use of avidin-biotin interaction in immunoenzymatic techniques. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27:1131–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gugerli, P., 1979, Potato virus A and potato leafroll virus: Purification, antiserum production and serological detection in potato and test plants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Phytopath. Z. 96:97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hammond, G., Ahluwalia, G., Barker, F., Horsman, G., and Hazelton, P., 1982, Comparison of direct and indirect enzyme immunoassays with direct ultracentrification before electron microscopy for detection of rotaviruses, J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:53–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hampar, B., Zwieg, M., Showalter, S., Bladen, S., and Riggs, C., 1985, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera, J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:496–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Harcourt, G., Best, J., and Banatvala, J., 1980, Rubella-specific serum and nasopharyngeal antibodies in volunteers with naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity after intranasal challenge, J. Infect. Dis. 142:145–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Harrison, T., Tsiquaye, K., and Zuckerman, A., 1983, Assay of HBV DNA in the plasma of HBV-carrier chimpanzees superinfected with non-A, non-B hepatitis, J. Virol. Methods 6:295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hawkins, E., Johnson, L., Pedersen, N., and Winston, S., 1968, Use of tears for diagnosis of feline leukemia virus infection, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:1031–1034.Google Scholar
  90. Heinz, F., Roggendorf, M., Hofmann, H., Kunz, C., and Deinhardt, F., 1981, Comparison of two different enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies against tickborne encephalitis virus in serum and cerbrospinal fluid, J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Higgins, J., Pedersen, N., and Carlson, J., 1968, Detection and differentiation by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus-and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus-like clinical isolates, J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:424–430.Google Scholar
  92. Hill, E. K., Hill, J. H. and Durand, D. P., 1984, Production of monoclonal antibodies to viruses in the Potyvirus group: Use in radioimmunoassay, J. Gen. Virol. 65:525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hinman, A., Kirby, C., Eddins, D., Orenstein, W., Bernier, R., Turner, P., and Bart, K., 1983, Elimination of indigenous measles from the United States, Rev. Inf. Dis. 5:538–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hoffmann, D. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Detection of distant antigenic relationships between insect and bird lysozymes, J. Molec. Evolut. 21:14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hofmann, H., Frisch-Niggemeyer, W., and Heinz, F., 1979, Rapid diagnosis of tick-bome encephalitis by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Gen. Virology 42:505–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hogg, R., and Davidson, G., 1982, Improved specificity of ELISA for rotavirus, Aust. Paediatr. J. 18:184–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hovi, T., Väisänen, V., Ukkonen, P., and von Bonsdorff, C., 1982, Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus antigen: Faecal protease activity as a reason for false-negative results. J. Virol Methods 5:45–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hoxie, J., Fitzharris, T., Youngbar, P., Matthews, D., Rackowski, J., and Rodka, S., 1987, Nonrandom association of cellular antigens with HTLF-III virions, Human Immunol. 18:39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Huss, B., Walter, B., Etienne, L. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1986, Grapevine fanleaf virus detection in various grapevine organs using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, Vitis 25:178–188.Google Scholar
  100. Ida, G., Siraganian, R., and Notkins, A., 1983, Cell-bound and circulating IgE antibody to herpes simplex, J. Gen. Virol. 64:533–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Isaac, M., and Payne, R., 1982, Antibody class capture assay (ACCA) for rubella specific IgM antibody, J. Med. Virol. 10:55–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ivo dos Santos, J., Galvao-Castra, B., Mello, D., Pereira, H., and Pereira, M., 1987, Dot enzyme immunoassay: A simple, cheap and stable test for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), J. Immunol Methods 99:191–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jaeglé, M. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1985, Use of ELISA for measuring the extent of serological cross-reactivity between plant viruses, J. Virol. Meth. 11:189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jafarpour, B., Shepherd, R. J. and Grogan, R. G., 1979, Serologic detection of bean common mosaic and lettuce mosaic viruses in seed, Phytopathology 69:1125–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Julkunen, I., 1984, Serological diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections by enzyme immunoassay with special emphasis on purity of viral antigens, J. Med. Virol 14:177–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kalica, A., Greenberg, H., Wyatt, R., Flores, J., Sereno, M., Kapikian, A., and Chanock, R., 1981, Genes of human (strain Wa) and bovine (strain UK) rotaviruses that code for neutralization and subgroup antigens, Virology 112:385–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kangro, H., 1980, Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for IgM-class antibodies against cytomegalovirus, Brit. J. Exptl. Pathol 61:512–520.Google Scholar
  108. Katz, D., Hillard, J., Eberle, R., and Lipper, S., 1986, ELISA for detection of group common and virus-specific antibodies in human and simian sera induced by herpes simplex and related simian viruses, J. Virol. Methods 14:99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Katz, J., and Hanson, S., 1987, Competitive and blocking enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of fetal bovine serum antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus, J. Virol. Methods 15:167–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kendall, C., Ionescu-Matiu, I. and Dreesman, G. R., 1983, Utilisation of the biotin/avidin system to amplify the sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), J. Immunol. Meth. 56:329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Keller, P., Lonergan, K., Neff, B., Morton, D., and Ellis, R., 1986, Purification of individual varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoproteins gpl, gpll, and gpIII, and their use in ELISA for detection of VZV glycoprotein-specific antibodies, J. Virol. Methods 14:177–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kennel, S. J., 1982, Binding of monoclonal antibody to protein antigen in fluid phase or bound to solid supports, J. Immunol Meth. 55:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Khan, M., Gallagher, M., Bucher, D., Cerini, C., and Kilbourne, E., 1982, Detection of influenza virus neuraminidase specific antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin. Microbiol. 16:115.Google Scholar
  114. Koenig, R., 1978, ELISA in the study of homologous and heterologous reactions of plant viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 40:309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Koenig, R., and Paul, H. L., 1982, Variants of ELISA in plant virus diagnosis, J. Virol. Meth. 5:113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Koenig, R. and Torrance, L., 1986, Antigenic analysis of potato virus X by means of monoclonal antibodies, J. Gen. Virol. 67:2145–2151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Konishi, E., and Yamaoka, M., 1982, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in swine sera, Kobe. J. Med. Sci. 28:7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kraaijeveld, C., Reed, S., and MacNaughton, M., 1980, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody in volunteers experimentally infected with human coronavirus strain 229E, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:493–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kramer, S., and Cremer, N., 1984, Detection of IgG antibodies to measles virus using monoclonal antibodies for antigen-capture in enzyme immunoassay, J. Virol. Methods 8:255–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Krause, P., Hyams, J., Middleton, P., Herson, V., and Flores, J., 1983, Unreliability of rotazyme ELISA test in neonates, J. Pediat. 103:259–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Krishna, R., Meurman, O., Ziegler, T., and Krech, U., 1980, Solid phase enzyme immunoassay for determination of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:46–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kryger, P., 1985, Significance of anti-HBc IgM in the differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis, J. Virol. Methods 10:283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kunz, C., and Hofmann, H., 1971, Zentbl. Bakteriol. 218:273.Google Scholar
  124. Kurstak, E., 1986, Enzyme Immunodiagnosis, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Kurstak, E., Tijssen, P., and Kurstak, C., 1977, Immunoperoxidase techniques in diagnostic virology and research: Principles and applications, in: Comparative Diagnosis of Viral Diseases, Volume II (E. Kurstak and C. Kurstak, eds.), pp. 403–448, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Kurstak, E., Tijssen, P., van den Hurk, J., and Kurstak, C., 1980, Detection by immunoperoxidase and ELISA of arbovirus antigens and antibodies in in vivo and in vitro systems, in: Invertebrate Systems in Vitro (E. Kurstak, K. Maramorosch, A. Oübendorfer, eds.), pp. 365–373, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  127. Kurstak, E., Tijssen, P., and Kurstak, C., 1984a, Recent advances in immunological and biochemical diagnostic virology, in: Control of Virus Diseases (E. Kurstak and R. Marusyk, eds.), pp. 477–500, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Kurstak, E., Tijssen, P., and Kurstak, C., 1984b, Enzyme immunoassays applied in virology: Reagents, preparation, and interpretation, Appl. Virology 1:479–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kurstak, E., Tijssen, P., Kurstak, C., and Morisset, R., 1986, Enzyme immunoassays and related procedures in diagnostic medical virology, Bull. Wld. Health Org. 64(3):465–479.Google Scholar
  130. Langer, P., Waldrop, A., and Ward, D., 1982, Enzymatic synthesis of biotin-labeled polynucleotides: Novel nucleic acid affinity probes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 78:6633–6637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Larke, R., 1983, Impact of measles in Canada, Rev. Inf. Dis. 5:445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Leslie, G. A. and Clem, L. W., 1969, Phylogeny of immunoglobulin structure and function, III. Immunoglobulins of the chicken. J. Exp. Med. 130:1337–1352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Linde, A., Hammarström, L., Persson, M., Smith, C., Sundqvist, V., and Wahren, B., 1983, Virusspecific antibody activity of different subclasses of immunoglobulins G and A in cytomegalovirus infections, Infect. Immun. 42:237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lister, R. M. and Rochow, W. F., 1979, Detection of barley yellow dwarf virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Phytopathology 69:649–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lister, R. M., Carroll, T. W. and Zaske, S. K., 1981, Sensitive serological detection of barley stripe mosaic virus in barley sed, Plant Dis. 65:809–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lommel, S. A., McCain, A. H. and Morris, T. J., 1982, Evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses, Phytopathology 72:1018–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lommel, S. A., McCain, A. H., Mayhew, D. E. and Morris, T. J., 1983, Survey of commercial carnation cultivars for four viruses in California by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Plant Dis. 66:167–170.Google Scholar
  138. Lund, G., and Salmi, A., 1982, Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G, J. Virol Methods 4:331–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lutz, H., et al., 1980, in: Feline Leukemia Viruses. (W. Hardy et al., eds.) Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  140. Lutz, H., Pedersen, N., and Theilen, G., 1983, Course of feline leukemia virus infection and its detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and monoclonal antibodies, Am. J. Vet. Res. 44:2054–2059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Macnaughton, M., Flowers, D., and Isaacs, D., 1983, Diagnosis of human coronavirus infections in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Med. Virol. 11:319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Madore, H., Reichman, R., and Dolin, R., 1983, Serum antibody responses in naturally occurring influenza A virus infection determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition, and complement fixation, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:1345–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mäkelä, M., 1987, MSc thesis, University of Alberta.Google Scholar
  144. Mäkelä, M., Norrby, E., and Salmi, A., 1987, Measurement of polypeptide-and antigenic sitespecific antibodies to measles virus using a competitive enzyme immunoassay, J. Virol. Methods 16:65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Manz, D., Wiegand, D., Behrens, F., and Ziegelmaier, R., 1981, Vergleichende serologische Untersuchungen on Blut und Milch zur Diagnostik der enzootischen Leukose des Rindes, Zbl. Vet. Med. 28B:280–291.Google Scholar
  146. Marco, S. and Cohen, S., 1979, Rapid detection and titer evaluation of viruses in pepper by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, Phytopathology 69:1259–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Marusyk, R., 1984, Measles: A continuing problem or eradication, in: Appl Virology (E. Kurstak, ed.), 211–219, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. McClurkin, A., Littledike, E., Cutlip, R., Frank, G., Coria, M., and Bolin, S., 1984, Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus, Can. J. Comp. Med. 48:156–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. McCullough, K. C., Crowther, J. R. and Butcher, R. N., 1985, Alteration in antibody reactivity with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FDMV) 146S antigen before and after binding to a solid phase or complexing with specific antibody. J. Immunol. Meth. 82:91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. McKeating, J., Grundy, J., Varghese, Z., and Griffiths, P., 1986, Detection of cytomegalovirus by ELISA in urine samples is inhibited by beta 2 microglobulin, J. Med. Virology 18:341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McLean, B., Sonza, S., and Holmes, I., 1980, Measurement of immunoglobulin A, G, and M class rotavirus antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions, J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:314–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. McLean, D., 1979, Arbovirus vectors in Canadian arctic, in: Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses (E. Kurstak, ed.), pp. 7–19, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  153. McLaughlin, M. R., Barnett, O. W., Gibson, P. B. and Burrows, P. M., 1984, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of viruses infecting forage legumes, Phytopathology 74:965–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McMorran, J. P. and Cameron, H. R., 1983, Detection of 41 isolates of necrotic ringspot, apple mosaic, and prune dwarf viruses in Prunus and Malus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Plant Dis. 67:536–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Meurman, O., Terho, P., and Salmi, A., 1978, Activation of rheumatoid factor during pregnancy, Lancet 2:685–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Meurman, O., and Ziola, B., 1978, IgM class rheumatoid factor interference in the solid phase radioimmunoassay of rubella specific IgM antibodies, J. Clin. Pathol. 31:483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Meurman, O., 1983, Detection of antiviral IgM antibodies and its problems: A review, Curr. Topics Microbiol. Immunol. 104:101–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Middleton, P., Holdaway, M., and Pétric, M., 1977, Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of rotavirus, Infect. Immun. 16:439–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Milan, A., and Stigbrand, T., 1981, “Sandwich” enzyme immunoassay for placental alkaline phosphatase, Clin. Chemistry 27:2018.Google Scholar
  160. Miller, E., Cradock-Watson, J., and Pollock, T., 1982, Consequences of confirmed maternal rubella at successive stages of pregnancy, Lancet 2:781–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Monath, T., Nyström, R., Bailey, R., Calisher, C., and Muth, D., 1984, Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:784–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Morell, A., Roth-Wicky, B., and Skvaril, F., 1983, Immunoglobulin G subclass restriction of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen, Infect. Immun. 39:565–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Morgan, E., and Rapp, F., 1977, Measles virus and its associated diseases, Bacteriol. Rev. 41:636–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Mowat, W. P. and Dawson, S., 1987, Detection and identification of plant viruses by ELISA using crude sap extracts and unfractionated antisera, J. Virol. Meth. 15:233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Müller, S., Jockers-Wretou, E., Sekaris, C. E., Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. and Bautz, F. A., 1985, Characterization of a monoclonal antibody reacting with histone H3, FEBS Lett. 182:459–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Murphy, B., Phelan, M., Nelson, D., Yarchoan, R., Tierney, E., Ailing, D., and Chanock, R., 1981, Hemagglutinin specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to influenza A and B viruses, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:554–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Niklasson, B., Jährling, P., and Peters, C., 1984, Detection of Lassa virus antigens and Lassa virus-specific immunoglobulins G and M by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ohmann, H., Jensen, M., Sorensen, K., and Dalsgaard, K., 1982, Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies, Can. J. Comp. Med. 46:357–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Oldham, L., Moulsdale, H., Mortimer, P., Tedder, R., and Morgan-Capner, P., 1987, How sensitive are the commercial assays for anti-HTLV III/LAV? J. Med. Virol. 21:75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Papaevangelou, G., Roumeliotou-Karayannis, Tassopoulos, N., and Stathopoulou, P., 1984, Diagnostic value of anti-HBc IgM in high HBV prevalence areas, J. Med. Virol. 13:393–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Pauls, F., and Dowdle, W., 1967, A sérologic study of herpes virus hominis strains by micro-neutralization tests, J. Immunol. 98:941–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Pedersen, N., Lowenstine, L., Marx, P., Higgins, J., Baulu, J., McGuire, M., and Gardner, M., 1986, The causes of false-positives encountered during the screening of old-world primates for antibodies to human and simian retroviruses by ELISA, J. Virol. Methods 14:213–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Peradze, T., and Smorodintsev, A., 1983, Epidemiology and specific prophylaxis of measles, Rev. Inf. Dis. 5:487–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Poison, A., Von Wechmar, M. B., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1980, Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens, Immunol. Commun. 9:475–493.Google Scholar
  175. Poison, A., Van Heerden, D. and Van der Merwe, K. J., 1985, Coated glass beads in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Immunol. Investig. 14:223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Porteteile, D., Brack, C., Mammerickx, M., and Burny, A., 1983, Use of monoclonal antibody in an ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to bovine leukaemia viras, J. Virol. Methods 6:19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Portetelle, D., et al., 1984, Can. Top. Vet. Med. Anim. Sei. 29:157.Google Scholar
  178. Powell, C. A. and Derr, M. A., 1983, An enzyme-linked immunosorbent blocking assay for comparing closely related viras isolates, Phytopathology 73:660–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Quesniaux, V., Briand, J. P. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1983, Immunochemical studies of turnip yellow mosaic viras, II. Localization of a viral epitope in the N-terminal residues of the coat protein, Molec. Immunol. 20:179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rapicetta, M., D’Ambrosio, E., Proietti, E., Morace, G., Donatelli, I., and Macchia, T., 1983, Antibody assay for measles viras: comparison of immune-adherence haemagglutination, single radial haemolysis, enzyme immunoassay and haemagglutination inhibition. J. Virol. Methods 6:303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rawls, W., Iwamoto, K., Adam, E., and Melnick, J., 1979, Measurement of antibodies to herpesvirus types 1 and 2 in human sera, J. Immunol. 104:599–606.Google Scholar
  182. Recchia, S., Rizzi, R., Acquaviva, F., Rizzetto, M., Tison, V., Bonino, F., and Verme, G., 1981, Pathologica 73:773–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Reiner, M., and Wecker, E., 1981, A modified absorption-reduction method to detect virus-specific hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing IgM antibodies, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 169:237–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rice, G., Casali, P., and Oldstone, M., 1983, A new solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies to measles virus, J. Inf. Dis. 147:1055–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Richman, D., Schmidt, N., Plotkin, S., Yolken, R., Cherenoky, M., Mclntosh, K., and Mattheis, M., 1984, Summary of a workshop on new and useful methods in rapid viral diagnosis, J. Inf. Dis. 150:941–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rochow, W. F., 1979, Comparative diagnosis of barley yellow dwarf by serological and aphid transmission tests, Plant Dis. Rep. 63:426–430.Google Scholar
  187. Roggendorf, M., Heinz, F., Deinhardt, F., and Kunz, C., 1981, Serological diagnosis of acute tickborne encephalitis by demonstration of antibodies of the IgM class, J. Med. Virol. 7:41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Roggendorf, M., Wigand, R., Deinhardt, F., and Frösner, G., 1982, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acute adenovirus infection, J. Virol. Methods 4:27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Romaine, C. P., Newhart, S. R. and Anzola, D., 1981, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plant viruses in intact leaf tissue discs, Phytopathology 71:308–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Rybicki, E. P. and Von Wechmar, M. B., 1981, The serology of the bromoviruses, I. Serological interrelationships of the bromoviruses, Virology 109:391–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sarkkinen, M., Halonen, P., Arstila, P., and Salmi, A., 1981, Detection of respiratory syncytial, parainfluenza type 2 and adenovirus antigens by radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay on nasopharyngeal specimens from children with acute respiratory disease, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:258–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Schluederberg, A., 1965, Immune globulins in human viral infections, Nature 205:1232–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Schüpbach, J., Haller, O., Vogt, M., Lüthy, R., Joller, H., Oelz, O., Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M., and Gallo, R., 1985, Antibodies to HTLV-III in Swiss patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS and in groups at risk for AIDS, New. Engl. J. Med. 312:265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Scotto, J., Hadchouel, M., Hery, C., Alvarez, F., Yvart, J., Tiollais, P., Bernard, O., and Brechot, C., 1983, Hepatitis B virus DNA in children’s liver diseases: detection by blot hybridisation in liver and serum, Gut 24:618–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Sejda, J., 1983, Control of measles in Czechoslovakia, Rev. Inf. Dis. 5:564–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Shattock, A., and Morgan, B., 1984, Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of delta antigen and anti delta, using serum as the delta antigen source, J. Med. Virol. 13:73–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Shoeman, R., Young, D., Pottathill, R., Victor, J., Conroy, R., Crowl, R., Coleman, T., Heimer, E., Lai, C., and Ganguly, K., 1987, Comparison of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus gag precursor and gag/env fusion proteins and a synthetic env peptide as diagnostic reagents, Anal. Biochem. 161:370–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Smedile, A., Lavarini, C., Crivelli, O., Raimondo, G., Fassone, M., and Rizzetto, M., 1982, Radioimmunoassay detection of IgM antibodies to the HBV-associated delta (delta) antigen: Clinical significance in delta infection, J. Med. Virol. 9:131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Smith, J., Sumner, J., and Roumillat, L., 1984, Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus, J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Soderquist, M. E. and Walton, A. G., 1980, Structural changes in proteins adsorbed on polymer surfaces, J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 75:386–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Spratt, H., Marks, M. I., Gomersall, M., Gill, P., and Pai, C., 1978, Nosocomial infantile gastroenteritis associated with minirotavirus and calicivirus, J. Pediatrics 6:922–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Stålhandske, P., and Pettersson, U., 1982, Identification of DNA viruses by membrane filter hybridization, J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:744–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Stallman, N., Allan, B., and Sutherland, C., 1974, Prolonged rubella IgM antibody response, Med. J. Austral 2:629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Stein, A., Loebenstein, G. and Koenig, R., 1979, Detection of cucumber mosaic virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in gladiolus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Plant Dis. Rep 63:185–188.Google Scholar
  205. Sundquist, V-A., Linde, A., and Wahren, B., 1984, Virus-specific immunoglobulin G subclasses in herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:94–98.Google Scholar
  206. Sureau, P., Rollin, P., and Zeller, H., 1982, Corrélations entre l’épreuve immunoenzymatique, la séroneutralisation et la réduction de foyers fluorescent pour le titrage des anticorps rabiques, Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Inf. Dis. 5:143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Tamada, T. and Harrison, B. D., 1980, Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the detection of potato leafroll virus in potato tubers, Ann. Appl. Biol. 96:67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Tamada, T. and Harrison, B. D., 1981, Quantitative studies on the uptake and retention of potato leafroll virus aphids in laboratory and field conditions, Ann. Appl. Biol. 98:261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Thomas, H., Karayiannis, P., Fowler, M., and Monjardino, J., 1985, Clinical uses of HBV-DNA assays, J. Virol. Methods. 10:291–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Torrance, L., 1980, Use of bovine Clq to detect plant viruses in an enzyme-linked immunosorbenttype assay, J. Gen. Virol. 51:229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Torrance, L., 1987, Use of enzyme amplification in an ELISA to increase sensitivity of detection of barley yellow dwarf viurs in oats and in individual vector aphids, J. Virol. Meth. 15:131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Torrance, L. and Jones, R. A. C., 1981, Recent developments in serological methods suited for use in routine testing of plant viruses, PL Pathol. 30:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Torrance, L. and Jones, R. A. C., 1982, Increased sensitivity ot detection of plant viruses obtained by using a fluorogenic substrate in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ann. Appl. Biol. 101:501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Torrance, L. and Pead, M. T., 1986, The application of monoclonal antibodies to routine tests for two plant viruses, in: Developments and Applications in Virus Testing (R. A. C. Jones and L. Torrance, eds), Association of Applied Biologists, pp. 103–118. Wellesbourne, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  215. Tremaine, J. H., McKenzie, D. J. and Ronald, W. P., 1985, Monoclonal antibodies as structural probes of southern bean mosaic virus, Virology 144:80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Tuokko, H., 1984, Comparison of nonspecific reactivity in indirect and reverse immunoassays for measles and mumps immunoglobulin M antibodies, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:972–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Tuokko, H., and Salmi, A., 1983, Detection of IgM antibodies to measles virus by enzyme immunoassay, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 171:187–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Tuomari, D., Olsen, R., Singh, V., and Kraut, E., 1984, Detection of circulating immune complexes by a Clq/protein A-ELISA during the preneoplastic stages of feline leukemia virus infection, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 7:227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Turner, R., Lathey, J., Van Voris, L., and Belshe, R., 1982, Serological diagnosis of influenza B virus infection: Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the hemagglutination inhibition test, J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:824–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ukkonen, P., Väisänen, O., and Penttinen, K., 1980, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for mumps and parainfluenza type 1 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin G and imunoglobulin M antibodies, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:319–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Vaidya, H. C., Dietzler, D. N. and Ladenson, J. H., 1985, Inadequacy of traditional ELISA for screening hybridoma supernatants for murine monoclonal antibodies, Hybridoma 4:271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S., and Babiuk, L., 1986, Polypeptide specificity of the antibody response after primary and recurrent infection with bovine herpesvirus 1, J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:274–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. van Loon, A., Vander Logt, J., Heesen, F., and van der Veen, J., 1981, Quantitation of immunoglobulin E antibody to cytomegalovirus by antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:558–561.Google Scholar
  224. van Loon, A., Heesen, F., and van der Logt, J., 1987, Antibody isotype response after human cytomegalovirus infection, J. Virol. Methods 15:101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1966, Plant virus serology, Adv. Virus Res. 12:207–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Serology and Immunochemistry of Plant Viruses, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  227. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1986, The potential for using monoclonal antibodies in the detection of plant viruses, in: Developments and Applications in Virus Testing (R. A. C. Jones and L. Torrance, eds), pp. 89–101, Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  228. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. and Burckard, J., 1980, Detection of a wide spectrum of tobacco mosaic virus strains by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Virology 106:327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V. and Von Wechmar, M. B., 1970, A re-examination of the serological relationship between tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber virus 4. Virology 41:330–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Vejtorp, M., 1980, The interference of IgM rheumatoid factor in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, J. Virol. Methods 1:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Vela, C., Cambra, M., Cortès, E., Moreno, P., Miguet, J. G., Pérez de San Roman, C. and Sanz, A., 1986, Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for citrus tristeza virus and their use for diagnosis, J. Gen. Virol. 67:91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Vestergaard, B., 1982, A prospective study of the relationship between genital herpes and carcinoma of the uterine cervix-L seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in women with previous history of clinical diagnosed genital herpes, Develop. Biol. Stand. 52:95–98.Google Scholar
  233. Voller, A., Bartlett, A., Bidwell, D. E., Clark, M. F. and Adams, A. N., 1976, The detection of viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), J. Gen. Virol. 33:165–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Walter, B., Vuittenez, A., Kuszala, A., Stocky, G., Burckard, J. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Détection sérologique des virus du court-noué de la vigne par le test ELISA. Agronomie 4:527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wartick, M., McCarroll, D., and Wiltbank, T., 1987, A second discriminator for biological false positive results in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HTLV-III/LAV). Transfusion 27:109–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Weber, J., Weiss, R., Roberts, C., Weiler, I., Tedder, R., Clapham, P., Parker, D., Duncan, J., Came, C., Pinching, A., and Cheingsong-Popov, R., 1978, Human immunodeficiency virus infection in two cohorts of homosexual men: Neutralising sera and association of anti-gag antibody with prognosis. Lancet 1:119–121.Google Scholar
  237. Wetter, C., Conti, M., Altschuh, D., Tabillion, R. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Pepper mild mottle virus, a tobamovirus infecting pepper cultivars in Sicily, Phytopathology 74:405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Wiktor, T., et al., 1973, Antigenic properties of rabies virus components, J. Immunol. 110:269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Wolff, K., Muth, D., Hudson, B., and Trent, D., 1981, Evaluation of solid-phase radioimmunoassays for diagnosis of St-Louis encephalitis infection in humans, J. Clin. Microbiology 14:135–140.Google Scholar
  240. Yolken, R. H., Leister, F. J., Whitcomb, L. S. and Santosham, M., 1983, Enzyme immunoassays for the detection of bacterial antigens utilizing biotin-labeled antibody and peroxidase biotinavidin complex, J. Immunol. Meth. 56:319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zrein, M., Burckard, J. and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1986, Use of the biotin-avidin system for detecting a broad range of serologically related plant viruses by ELISA, J. Virol. Meth. 13:121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Kurstak
    • 1
  • R. Marusyk
    • 2
  • A. Salmi
    • 2
  • L. Babiuk
    • 3
  • C. Kurstak
    • 1
  • M. Van Regenmortel
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Montreal and Hospital Hôtel Dieu de MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Viral Pathogenesis Research Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Microbiology and the Veterinary Infectious Disease OrganizationUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  4. 4.Institute of Molecular and Cellular BiologyStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations