Pathogenesis and Diseases of the Central Nervous System Caused by Murine Coronaviruses

  • Samuel Dales
  • Robert Anderson
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)


This chapter is an account of studies of central nervous system (CNS) diseases connected with neurotropic variants of MCV such as J. Howard Müller Virus (JHM) and A59 and deals with animal models that may have relevance to an understanding of human diseases of putative viral etiology such as multiple sclerosis (MS). From the time of (JHMV) isolation from paralyzed mice by Cheever et al. (1949) and Bailey et al. (1949), this agent and related strains have provided copious data about encephalitic and demyelinating diseases in rodents. To date, however, any possible connection between murine Coronavirus (MCV) and MS is tenuous. The reported isolation of Coronavirus (CV) particles from MS patients’ brain (Burks et ah, 1980) or electron microscopic visualization of CV-like particles in brain tissue of one MS patient (Tanaka et al., 1976), require confirmation. An older report of JHMV-induced panencephalitis in monkeys (Kersting and Pette, 1956), however, has been confirmed by Murray et al. (1992a) in their description of demyelinative disease in several monkey species. This finding, coupled with the identification of viral RNA and protein within demyelinative plaques in human brain tissue from MS patients (Murray et al., 1992b; Stewart et al., 1992), are highly provocative data concerning an involvement of CV in the etiology of MS. However, a cautious evaluation of these results may be in order, in view of the recent demonstration of genomic and antigenic relatedness between the N protein of JHMV and the microtubule-associated protein tau (Pasick et al., 1994).


Measle Virus Demyelinating Disease Canine Distemper Virus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Human Coronavirus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aloisi, F., Agresti, C., D’Urso, D., and Levi, G., 1988, Differentiation of bipotential glial precursors into oligodendrocytes is promoted by interaction with type 1 astrocytes in cerebellar cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:6167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amako, K., and Dales, S., 1967, Cytopathology of mengovirus infection. II. Proliferation of membranous cisternae, Virology 32:201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, R., and Wong, F., 1993, Membrane and phospholipid binding by murine coronaviral nucleocapsid N protein, Virology 194:224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appleyard, G., and Tisdale, M., 1985, Inhibition of the growth of human Coronavirus 229E by leupeptin, J. Gen. Virol. 66:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, J., Smeekens, S., and Rottier, P., 1983, Sequence of the nucleocapsid gene from murine Coronavirus MHV-A59. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnheiter, H., Baechi, T., and Haller, O., 1982, Adult mouse hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture express genetic resistance to mouse hepatitis virus type 3, J. Immunol. 129:1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asano, K., and Asano, A., 1988, Binding of cholesterol and inhibitory peptide derivatives with the fusogenic hydrophopic sequence of F-glycoprotein of HVJ (Sendai virus): Possible implication in the fusion reaction, Biochemistry 27:1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, O. T., Pappenheimer, A. M., Cheever, F. S., and Daniels, J. B., 1949, A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin. II. Pathology, J. Exp. Med. 90:195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bang, F. B., and Warwick, A., 1960, Mouse macrophages as host cells for the mouse hepatitis virus and the genetic basis for their susceptibility, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 46:1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barthold, S. W., and Smith, A. L., 1984, Mouse hepatitis virus strain-related patterns of tissue tropism in suckling mice, Arch. Virol. 81:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barthold, S. W., and Smith, A. L., 1989, Duration of challenge immunity to Coronavirus JHM in mice, Arch. Virol. 107:171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barthold, S. W., Beck, D. S., and Smith, A. L., 1986, Mouse hepatitis virus nosoencephalopathy is dependent upon virus strain and host genotype, Arch. Virol. 91:247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baybutt, H. N., Wege, H., Carter, M. J., and Ter Meulen, V., 1984, Adaptation of Coronavirus JHM to persistent infection of murine sac(-) cells, J. Gen. Virol. 65:915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beushausen, S., and Dales, S., 1985, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. IX. Tropism and differentiation regulate the infectious process of coronaviruses in primary explants of the rat CNS, Virology 141:89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beushausen, S., Narindrasorasak, K., Sanwal, B. D., and Dales, S., 1987, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: Activation of the adenylate cyclase system influences JHM virus expression in explanted rat oligodendrocytes, J. Virol 48:3795.Google Scholar
  16. Bögler, O., Wren, D., Barnett, S. C., Land, H., and Noble, M., 1990, Cooperation between two growth factors promotes extented self-renewal and inhibits differentiation of ologodendrocyte-type 2 astrocyte (O2-A) progenitor cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouloy, M., Plotch, S. J., and Krug, R. M., 1980, Both in the 7-methyl and the 2′-O-methyl groups in the cap of mRNA strongly influence its ability to act as primer for influenza virus RNA transcription, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:3952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyle, J. F., Weismiller, D. G., and Holmes, K. C., 1987, Genetic resistance to mouse hepatitis virus correlates with absence of virus-binding activity on target tissue, J. Virol. 61:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruce, C. B., Chapman, J., Suckling, A. J., and Rumsby, M. G., 1984, Infection of rat brain primary cell cultures with an avirulent A7 strain of Semliki forest virus, J. Neuro. Sci. 66:77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buchmeier, M. J., Lewicki, H. A., Talbot, P. J., and Knobler, R. L., 1984, Murine hepatitis virus-4 (strain JHM)-induced neurologic disease is modulated in vivo by monoclonal antibody, Virology 132:261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buchmeier, M. J., Dalziel, R. G., and Koolen, M. J. M., 1988, Coronavirus-induced CNS disease: A model for virus-induced demyelination, J. Neuroimmun. 20:111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burks, J. S., Devald, B. L., Jankovsky, L. D., and Gerdes, J. C., 1980, Two coronaviruses isolated from central nervous system tissue of two multiple sclerosis patients, Science 209:933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calder, V. L., Wolswijk, G., and Noble, M., 1988, The differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells into oligodendrocytes is associated with loss of inducibility of la antigens, Eur. J. Immunol. 18:1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrasco, L., and Smith, A. E., 1976, Sodium ions and the shut off of host cell protein synthesis by picornaviruses, Nature 264:807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cavanagh, D., Brian, D. A., Enjuanes, L., Holmes, K., Lai, M., Laude, S., Siddell, S., Spaan, W., Taguchi, F., and Talbot, P., 1990, Recommendations of the Coronavirus study group for the nomenclature of the structural proteins, mRNAs, and genes of coronaviruses, Virology 176:306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cervin, M., and Anderson, R., 1991, Modulation of coronavirus-mediated cell fusion by homeostatic control of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism, J. Med. Virol. 35:142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheever, F. S., Daniels, J. B., Pappenheimer, A. M., and Bailey, O. T., 1949, A murine virus causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin I. Isolation and biological properties of the virus, J. Exp. Med. 90:181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheley, S., and Anderson, R., 1981, Cellular synthesis and modification of murine hepatitis virus polypeptides, J. Gen. Virol. 54:301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheley, S., Morris, V. L., Cuppels, M. J., and Anderson, R., 1981, RNA and polypeptide homology among murine coronaviruses, Virology 115:310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collins, A. R., and Sorensen, O., 1986, Regulation of viral persistence in human glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cells infected with Coronavirus OC43, Microb. Pathol. 1:573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collins, A. R., Knobler, R. L., Powell, H., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1982, Monoclonal antibodies to murine hepatitis virus-4 (strain JHM) define the viral glycoprotein responsible for attachment and cell-cell fusion, Virology 119:358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Collins, A. R., Runison, A. L., and Knobler, R. L., 1983, Mouse hepatitis virus type 4 infection of primary glial cultures from genetically susceptible and resistant mice, Infect. Immun. 40:1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Coulter-Mackie, M. B., Flintoff, W. P., and Dales, S., 1984, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. X. A Schwannoma-L-2 somatic cell hybrid persistently yielding high titres of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM, Virus Res. 1:477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coulter-Mackie, M., Adler, R., Wilson, G., and Dales, S., 1985, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. XII. Persistence and expression of corona JHM virus functions in RN2–2 schwannoma cells during latency, Virus Res. 3:245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalziel, R. G., Lampert, P. W., Talbot, P. J., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1986, Site-specific alteration of murine hepatitis virus type 4 peplomer glycoprotein E2 results in reduced neurovirulence, J. Virol. 59:463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. David-Ferreira, J. F., and Manaker, R. A., 1965, An electron microscope study of the development of a mouse hepatitis virus in tissue culture cells, J. Cell. Biol. 24:57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies, H. A., Dourmashkin, R. R., and MacNaughton, M. R., 1981, Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 53:67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Daya, M., Cervin, M., and Anderson, R., 1988, Cholesterol enhances mouse hepatitis virus-mediated cell fusion, Virology 163:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Daya, M., Wong, P., Cervin, M., Evans, G., Vennema, H., Spaan, W., and Anderson, R., 1989, Mutation of host cell determinants which discriminate between lytic and persistent mouse hepatitis virus infection results in a fusion-resistant phenotype, J. Gen. Virol. 70:3335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dörries, R., Watanabe, R., Wege, H., and Ter Meulen, V., 1986, Murine coronavirus-induced enceph-alomyelitides in rats: Analysis of immunoglobulins and virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, J. Neuroimmun. 12:131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dörries, R., Watanabe, R., Wege, H., and Ter Meulen, V., 1987, Analysis of the intrathecal humoral response in Brown Norway (BN) rats, infected with murine Coronavirus JHM, J. Neuroimmun. 14:305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Doughri, A. M., Storz, J., Hajer, I., and Fernando, H. S., 1976, Morphology and morphogenesis of a Coronavirus infecting intestinal epithelial cells of newborn calves, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 25:355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dubois-Dalq, M. E., Doller, E. W., Haspel, M. V., and Holmes, K. V., 1982, Cell tropism and expression of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in mouse spinal cord cultures, Virology 119:317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dupuy, J. M., Dupuy, C., and Decarie, D., 1984, Genetically determined resistance to mouse hepatitis virus 3 is expressed in hematopoeietic donor cells in radiation chimeras, J. Immunol. 133:1609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fabre, M., Langley, O. K., Bologia, L., Delaundy, J-P., Lowenthal, A., Ferret-Jena, V., Vincendon, G., and Sarliève, L., 1985, Cellular development and myelin production in primary cultures of embryonic mouse brain, Dev. Neurosci. 7:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fernandez-Munoz, R., and Darnell, J. E., 1976, Structural differences between the 5′-termini of viral and cellular mRNA in poliovirus-infected cells, J. Virol. 18:719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fleming, J. O., Trousdale, M. D., El-Zaatari, F. A. K., Stohlman, S. A., and Weiner, L. P., 1986, Pathogenicity of antigenic variants of murine Coronavirus JHM selected with monoclonal antibodies, J. Virol. 58:869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fleming, J. O., Trousdale, M. D., Bradbury, J., Stohlman, S. A., and Weiner, L. P., 1987, Experimental demyelination induced by Coronavirus JHM (MHV-4): Molecular identification of a viral determinant of paralytic disease, Microb. Pathol. 3:9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fleming, J. O., Shubin, R. A., Sussman, M. A., Casteel, N., and Stohlman, S. A., 1989, Monoclonal antibodies to the matrix (E1) glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus protect mice from encephalitis, Virology 168:162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Flintoff, W. F., and van Dinter, S., 1989, Several rat cell lines share a common defect in their inability to internalize murine corona viruses efficiently, J. Gen. Virol. 70:1713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frana, M. F., Behnke, J. N., Struman, L. S., and Holmes, K. V., 1985, Proteolytic cleavage of the E2 glycoprotein of murine Coronavirus: Host-dependent differences in the proteolytic cleavage and cell fusion, J. Virol. 56:912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gallagher, T. M., Parker, S. E., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1990, Neutralization-resistant variants of a neurotropic Coronavirus are generated by deletions with the amino-terminal half of the spike glycoprotein, J. Virol. 64:731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gallwitz, D., Traub, U., and Traub, P., 1977, Fate of histone messenger RNA in mengovirus-infected Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Eur. J. Biochem. 81:387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gard, A. L., and Pfeiffer, S. E., 1989, Oligodendrocyte progenitors isolated directly from developing telencephalon at a specific phenotypic stage: Myelinogenic potential in a defined environment, Development 106:119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gombold, J. L., Hingley, S. T., and Weiss, S. R., 1993, Fusion-defective mutants of mouse hepatitis virus A59 contain a mutation in the spike protein cleavage signal, J. Virol. 67:4504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Greene, L. E., and Eisenberg, E., 1988, Effect of phosphatase on the ability of the uncoating ATPase to dissociate clathrin from coated vesicles, J. Cell. Biol. 107A:773.Google Scholar
  57. Hasony, H. J., and MacNaughton, M. R., 1982, Serological relationships of the subcomponents of human Coronavirus strain HCV 229E and mouse hepatitis virus 3, J. Gen. Virol. 58:449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haspel, M. V., Lampert, P. W., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1978, Temperature-sensitive mutants of mouse hepatitis virus produce a high incidence of demyelination, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75:4033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hellevi, P., and Hovi, T., 1980, Coronavirus infections of man associated with diseases other than the common cold, J. Med, Virol. 6:259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hilton, A., Mizzen, L., Maclntyre, G., Cheley, S., and Anderson, R., 1986, Translational control in murine hepatitis virus infection, J. Gen. Virol. 67:923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hirano, N., Goto, N., Ogawa, T., Ono, K., Murakani, T., and Fujiwara, K., 1980, Hydrocephalus in suckling rats infected intracerebrally with mouse hepatitis virus MHV-A59, Microb. Immunol. 24:825.Google Scholar
  62. Kaufman, Y., Goldstein, E., and Penman, S., 1976, Poliovirus-induced inhibition of polypeptide initiation in vitro on native polysomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:1834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kersting, G., and Pette, E., 1956, Pathohistologie und Pathogenese der experimentellen JHM-Virusencephalomyelitis des Affen, Dtsch. Nervenheilkund. 174:283.Google Scholar
  64. Kienzle, T. E., Abraham, S., Hogue, B. G., and Brian, D., 1990, Structure and orientation of expressed bovine Coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase protein, J. Virol. 64:1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Klumperman, J., Krijnse-Locke, J., Meijer, A., Horzinek, M. C., Geuze, H., and Rottier, P. J. M., 1994, Coronavirus M proteins accumulate in the Golgi complex beyond the site of virion budding, J. Virol. 68:6523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Knobler, R. L., Haspel, M. V., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1981, Mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (JHM strain)-induced fatal central nervous system disease, J. Exp. Med. 153:832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Knobler, R. L., Lampert, P. W., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1982, Virus persistence and recurring demyelination produced by a temperature-sensitive mutant of MHV, Nature 298:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knobler, R. L., Tunison, L. A., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1984, Host genetic control of mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (JHM strain) replication. I. Restriction of virus amplification and spread in macrophages from resistant mice, J. Gen. Virol. 65:1543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kooi, C., Mizzen, L., Alderson, C., Daya, M., and Anderson, R., 1988, Early events of importance in determining host cell permissiveness to mouse hepatitis virus infection, J. Gen. Virol. 69:1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Koolen, M. J. M., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., Van Steenis, G., Horzinek, M. C., and van der Zeijst, B. A. M., 1983, Temperature-sensitive mutants of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59: Isolation, characterization and neuropathogenic properties, Virology 125:393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koper, J. W., Lopes-Cardozo, M., Romijn, H. J., and van Golde, E. M. G., 1984, Culture of rat cerebellar oligodendrocytes in a serum-free, chemically defined medium, J. Neurosci. Meth. 10:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Krijnse-Locker, J., Ericsson, M., Rottier, P. J. M., and Griffiths, G., 1994, Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: Evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step, J. Cell. Biol. 124:55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krishna, P., and van de Sande, J. H., 1990, Interaction of RecA protein with acidic phospholipids inhibits DNA-binding activity of RecA, J. Bacteriol. 172:279.Google Scholar
  74. Krzystyniak, K., and Dupuy, J. M., 1984, Entry of mouse hepatitis virus 3 into cells, J. Gen. Virol. 65:227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. La Monica, N., Banner, L. R., Morris, V. L., and Lai, M. M. C., 1991, Localization of extensive deletions in the structural genes of two neurotropic variants of murine Coronavirus JHM, Virology 182:883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lai, M. M. C., 1986, Coronavirus leader-RNA-primed transcription: An alternative mechanism to RNA splicing, Bioessays 5:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lai, M. M. C., 1990, Coronavirus: Organization, replication and expression of genome, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 44:303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lai, M. M. C., Patton, C. D., and Stohlman, S. A., 1982, Further characterization of mRNAs of mouse hepatitis virus: Presence of common 5′ end nucleotides, J. Virol. 41:557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lai, M. M. C., Baric, R. S., Makino, S., Keck, J. G., Egbert, J., Leibowitz, J. L., and Stohlman, S. A., 1985, Recombination between nonsegmented RNA genomes of murine Coronavirus, J. Virol. 56:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lamontagne, L., and Dupuy, J. M., 1984a, Persistent infection with mouse hepatitis virus 3 in mouse lymphoid cell lines, Infect. Immun. 44:716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lamontagne, L., and Dupuy, J. M., 1984b, Natural resistance of mice to mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection is expressed in embryonic cells, J. Gen. Virol. 65:1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lamontagne, L., Descoteux, J. P., and Jolicoeur, P., 1989, Mouse hepatitis virus replication in T and B lymphocytes correlate with viral pathogenicity, J. Immunol. 142:4458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Laude, H., Charley, B., and Gelfl, J., 1984, Replication of transmissible gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV) in swine alveolar macrophages, J. Gen. Virol. 65:327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lavi, E., Gilden, D. H., Highkin, M. K., and Weiss, S. R., 1984a, Persistence of mouse hepatitis virus A59 RNA in a slow virus demyelinating infection of mice as detected by in situ hybridization, J. Virol 51:563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lavi, E., Gilden, D. H., Wroblewska, Z., Rorke, L. B., and Weiss, S. B., 1984b, Experimental demyelination produced by the A59 strain of mouse hepatitis virus, Neurology 34:597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lavi, E., Suzumura, A., Hiragama, M., Highkin, M. K., Dambach, D. M., Silberberg, D. H., and Weiss, S. R., 1987, Coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-A59 causes persistent, productive infection in primary glial cell cultures, Microb. Pathol. 3:79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lavi, E., Fishman, P. S., Highkin, M. K., and Weiss, S. R., 1988, Limbic encephalitis after inhalation of a murine Coronavirus, Lab. Invest. 58:31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lavi, E., Suzumura, A., Murray, E. M., Silberberg, B. H., and Weiss, S. R., 1989, Induction of MHC class I antigens on glial cells is dependent on persistent mouse hepatitis virus infection, J. Neuroimmunol 22:107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lavi, E., Murray, E. M., Makino, S., Stohlman, S. A., and Lai, M. M. C., 1990, Determinants of Coronavirus MHV pathogenesis are localized to 3′ portions of the genome as determined by ribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid recombination, Lab. Invest. 62:570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lazaridis, I., Babich, A., and Nevins, J. R., 1988, Role of adenovirus 72-kDa DNA binding protein in the rapid decay of early viral mRNA, Virology 165:438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lee, H.-J., Shieh, C.-K., Gorbalenya, A. E., Koonin, E. V., La Monica, N., Tuler, J., Bagdzhadzhyan, A., and Lai, M. M. C., 1991, The complete sequence (22 kilobases) of murine Coronavirus gene 1 encoding the putative protease and RNA polymerase, Virology 180:567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leibowitz, J. L., Bond, C. W., Anderson, K., and Goos, S., 1984, Biological and macromolecular properties of murine cells persistently infected with MHV-JHM, Arch. Virol. 80:315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Le Prévost, C., Verlizier, J. L., and Dupuy, J. M., 1975, Immunpathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection, J. Immunol. 115:640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Leray, D., Dupuy, C., and Dupuy, J. M., 1982, Immunpathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. IV. MHV3-induced immunodepression. Clin. Immun. Immunopathol. 23:539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Levine, J. M., 1989, Neuronal influences on glial progenitor cell development, Neuron 5:103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lillien, L. E., and Raff, M. C., 1990, Differentiation signals in the CNS: Type-2 astrocyte development in vitro as a model system, Neuron 5:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lodish, H. F., and Porter, M., 1981, Vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA and inhibition of translation of cellular mRNA-is there a P function in vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 38:504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Loeb, J. E., Cantournet, B., Vartanian, M.-R, Goris, J., and Mervelde, W., 1989, Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of β light chain of clathrin from rat liver coated vesicles, Eur. J. Biochem. 182:195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lucas, A., Flintoff, W., Anderson, R., Percy, D., Coulter, M., and Dales, S., 1977, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: Tropism of JHM strain of murine hepatitis virus for cells of glial origin, Cell 12:553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lucas, A., Coulter, M., Anderson, R., Dales, S., and Flintoff, W., 1978, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. II. Persistence and host regulated thermosensitivity in cells of neural derivation infected with mouse hepatitis and measles viruses, Virology 88:325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Luytjes, W., Sturman, L., Bredenbeek, P. J., Charite, J., van der Zeijst, B. A. M., Horzinek, M. C., and Spaan, W. J. M., 1987, Primary structure of glycoprotein E2 of Coronavirus MHV-A59 and identification of the trypsin cleavage site, Virology 161:479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Luytjes, W., Geerts, D., Posthumus, W., Meleon, R., and Spaan, W., 1989, Amino acid sequence of conserved neutralizing epitope of murine coronaviruses, J. Virol. 63:1408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. MacIntyre, G., Wong, P., and Anderson, R., 1989, A model for persistent murine Coronavirus infection involving maintenance via cytopathically infected cell centres, J. Gen. Virol. 70:763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. MacNaughton, M. R., 1982, Occurrence and frequency of Coronavirus infections in humans as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Infect. Immun. 38:419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. MacNaughton, M. R., and Patterson, S., 1980, Mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 infection of C57, A/Sn and A/J strain mice and their macrophages, Arch. Virol. 66:71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Makino, S., and Lai, M. M. C., 1989, Evolution of the 5′-end of genomic RNA of murine coronaviruses during passage in vitro, Virology 169:227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Makino, S., Taguchi, P., and Fujiwara, L., 1984, Defective interfering particles of mouse hepatitis virus, Virology 133:9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Makino, S., Fujioka, N., and Fujiwara, K., 1985, Structure of the intracellular defective viral RNAs of defective interfering particles of mouse hepatitis virus, J. Virol. 54:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Makino, S., Fleming, J. O., Keck, J. G., Stohlman, S. A., and Lai, M. M. C., 1987, RNA recombination of coronaviruses: Localization of neutralizing epitopes and neuropathogenic determinants on the caroxyl terminus of peplomers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:6567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mallucci, L., and Edwards, B., 1982, Influence of cytoskeleton on the expression of a mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-3) in peritoneal macrophages: Acute and persistent infection, J. Gen. Virol. 63:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Marvaldi, J. L., Lucas-Lenard, J., Sekellick, M. J., and Marcus, P., 1977, Cell killing by viruses. IV. Cell killing and protein synthesis inhibition by vesicular stomatitis virus require the same gene functions, Virology 79:267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Massa, P. T., and ter Meulen, V., 1987, Analysis of la induction on Lewis rat astrocytes in vitro by virus particles and bacterial adjuvants, J. Neuroimmun. 13:259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Massa, P. T., Wege, H., and ter Meulen, V., 1986, Analysis of murine hepatitis virus (JHM strain) tropism towards Lewis rat glial cells in vitro Type I astrocytes and brain macrophages (microglia) as primary glial target cells, Lab. Invest. 55:318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Massa, R T., Wege, H., and ter Meulen, V., 1988, Growth pattern of various JHM Coronavirus isolates in primary rat glial cell cultures correlates with differing neurotropism in vivo, Virus Res. 9:133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Massalski, A., Coulter-Mackie, M., Knobler, R. L., Buchmeier, M. J., and Dales, S., 1982, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. V. Comparison of the assembly of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM, in two murine cell lines, Intervirology 18:135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Matsubara, Y., Watanabe, R., and Taguchi, F., 1991, Neurovirulence of six murine Coronavirus JHMV variants of rats, Virus Res. 20:45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. McKinnon, R. D., Matsui, T., Dubois-Dalcq, M., and Aaronson, S. A., 1990, FGF modulates the PDGF-driven pathway of oligodendrocyte development, Neuron 5:603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mendelman, P. M., Jankovsky, L. D., Murray, R. S., Licari, P., Devald, B., Gerdes, J. C., and Burks, J. S., 1983, Pathogenesis of Coronavirus SD in mice. I. Prominent demyelination in the absence of infectious virus production, Arch. Neurol. 40:493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Miller, C. A., and Carrigan, D. B., 1982, Reversible repression and activation of measles virus infection in neural cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mizzen, L., Cheley, S., Rao, M., Wolf, R., and Anderson, R., 1983, Fusion resistance and decreased infectability as major host cell determinants of Coronavirus persistence, Virology 128:407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mizzen, L., Hilton, A., Cheley, S., and Anderson, R., 1985, Attenuation of murine Coronavirus infection by ammonium chloride, Virology 142:378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mizzen, L., MacIntyre, G., Wong, F., and Anderson, R., 1987a, Translational regulation in mouse hepatitis virus infection is not mediated by altered intracellular ion concentrations, J. Gen. Virol. 68:2143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mizzen, L., Daya, M., and Anderson, R., 1987b, The role of protease-dependent cell membrane fusion in persistent and lytic infections of murine hepatitis virus, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 218:175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mobley, J., Evans, G., Dailey, M. O., and Perlman, S., 1992, Immune response to a murine Coronavirus: Identification of a homing receptor-negative CD4+ T cell subset that responds to viral glycoproteins, Virology 187:443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mohandas, D. V., and Dales, S., 1990, In vivo and in vitro models demyelinating disease: A phosphoprotein phosphatase in host cell endosomes dephosphorylating the nucleocapsid protein of Coronavirus JHM, in: Coronavirus and Their Diseases (D. Cavanagh and T. D. K. Brown, eds.), pp. 255–260, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mohandas, D. V., and Dales, S., 1991, Endosomal association of a protein phosphatase with high dephosphorylating activity against a Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein, FEBS Lett. 282:419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Morris, V. L., Tieszer, C., MacKinnon, J., and Percy, D., 1989, Characterization of Coronavirus JHM variants isolated from Wistar Furth rats with a viral-induced demyelinating disease, Virology 169:127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Muraoka, S., and Takahashi, T., 1989, Primary dissociated cell culture of fetal rat central nervous tissue. II. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies of myelinogenesis, Dev. Brain Res. 49:63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Murray, R. S., Cai, G.-Y., Hoel, K., Zhang, J.-Y., Soike, K. F., and Cabirac, G. F., 1992a, Coronavirus infects and causes demyelination in primate central nervous system, Virology 188:274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Murray, R. S., Brown, B., Brian, D., and Cabirac, G. P., 1992b, Detection of Coronavirus RNA and antigen in multiple sclerosis brain, Ann. Neurol. 31:525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Niemann, H., and Klenk, H.-D., 1981, Coronavirus glycoprotein E1, a new type of viral glycoprotein, J. Mol. Biol. 153:993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Niemann, H., Geyer, R., Klenk, H.-D., Lindner, D., Strim, S., and Wirth, M., 1984, The carbohydrates of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59: Structures of the O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein E1, EMBO J. 3:665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Nishioka, Y., and Silverstein, S., 1978, Requirement of protein synthesis for the degrading of host mRNA in Friend erytholeukemia cells infected with herpes simplex virus, J. Virol. 27:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Parham, D., Tereba, A., Talbot, P. J., Jackson, D. P., and Morris, V. L., 1986, Analysis of JHM central nervous system infections in rats, Arch. Neurol. 43:702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Parker, M. D., Yoo, D., and Babiuk, L. A., 1990, Expression and secretion of the bovine Coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein by insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, J. Virol. 64:1625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Parker, S. E., Gallagher, T. M., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1989, Sequence analysis reveals extensive polymorphism and evidence of deletions within the E2 glycoprotein gene of several strains of murine hepatitis virus, Virology 173:664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pasick, J. M. M., and Dales, S., 1991, Infection by Coronavirus JHM of rat neurons and oligo-dendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte lineage cells during distinct development stages, J. Virol. 65:5013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Pasick, J. M. M., Wilson, G. A. R., Morris, V. L., and Dales, S., 1992, SJL/J resistance to mouse hepatitis virus JHM-induced neurologic disease immunosuppression, Microbiol. Pathol. 13:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pasick, J. M. M., Kalicharran, K., and Dales, S., 1994, Distribution and traffiking of JHM Coronavirus structural proteins and virions in primary the OBL-21 neuronal cell line, J. Virol. 68:2915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Pauloin, A., Thurieau, C., and Jolies, P., 1988, Cyclic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cascade in bovine brain coated vesicles, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 968:91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pearce-Kelling, S., Mitchell, W. J., Summers, B. A., and Appal, M. J. G., 1990, Growth of canine distemper virus in cultured astrocytes: Relationship to in vivo persistence and disease, Microb. Pathol. 8:71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pearson, J., and Mims, C. A., 1985, Differential susceptibility of cultured neural cells to the human Coronavirus OC43, J. Virol. 53:1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Penman, S., 1965, Stimulation of the incorporation of choline in poliovirus-infected cells, Virology 25:148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Pereira, C. A., Steffan, A. M., Koehren, F., Douglas, C. R., and Kirn, A., 1987, Increased susceptibility of mice to MHV 3 infection induced by hypercholesterolemic diet: Impairment of Kupffer cell function, Immunobiology 174:253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Perlman, S., Jacobsen, G., and Moore, S., 1988, Regional localization of virus in the central nervous system of mice persistently infected with murine Coronavirus JHM, Virology 166:328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Perlman, S., Jacobsen, G., and Afifi, A., 1989, Spread of a neurotropic Coronavirus into the CNS via the trigeminal and olfactory nerves, Virology 170:556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Perlman, S., Jacobsen, G., Olson, A. L., and Afifi, A., 1990, Identification of the spinal cord as a major site of persistence during chronic infection with a murine Coronavirus, Virology 175:418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pickel, K., Müller, M. A., and ter Meulen, V., 1981, Analysis of age-dependent resistance to murine Coronavirus JHM infection in mice, Infect. Immun. 34:648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Plotch, S. J., Bouloy, M., Ulmanen, I., and Krug, R. M., 1981, A unique cap (m7Gpppm)-dependent influenza virion endonuclease cleaves capped RNAs to generate the primers that initiate viral RNA transcription, Cell 23:847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Raff, M. C., 1989, Glial cell diversification in the rat optic nerve, Science 243:1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Raju, R., and Kolakofsky, D., 1988, La Crosse virus infection of mammalian cells induces mRNA instability, J. Virol. 62:27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Reed, S., 1984, The behaviour of recent isolates of human respiratory Coronavirus in vitro and in volunteers: Evidence of heterogeneity among 229E-related strains, J. Med. Virol. 13:179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rice, A. P., and Roberts, B. E., 1983, Vaccinia virus induces cellular mRNA degradation, J. Virol. 47:529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Robb, J. A., Bond, C. W., and Leibowitz, J. L., 1979, Pathogenic murine coronaviruses. III. Biological and biochemical characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of JHMV, Virology 94:385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rodriguez, M., Kenny, J. J., Thiemann, R. L., and Woloschak, G. E., 1990, Theiler’s virus-induced demyelination in mice immunosuppressed with anti-IgM and in mice expressing the xid gene, Micwb. Pathol. 8:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rottier, P. J. M., and Rose, J. K., 1987, Coronavirus El glycoprotein expressed from cloned cDNA localizes in the Golgi region, J. Virol 61:2042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rottier, P. J. M., Brandenburg, D., Armstrong, J., van der Zeijst, B., and Warren, G., 1984, Assembly in vitro of a spinning membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum: The El glycoprotein of Coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus A59, Proc. Acad. Natl. Sci. USA 81:1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sawicki, S. G., and Sawicki, D. L., 1990, Coronavirus transcription: Subgenomic mouse hepatitis virus replicative intermediates function in mRNA synthesis, J. Virol. 64:1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Schmid, S., Fuchs, R., Kielian, M., Helenius, A., and Mellman, I., 1989, Acidification of endosome subpopulations in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells and temperature-sensitive acidification-defective mutants, J. Cell. Biol. 108:1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schmidt, I., Skinner, M., and Siddell, S., 1987, Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the surface projection glycoprotein of Coronavirus MHV-JHM, J. Gen. Virol. 68:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Schultze, B., Wahn, K., Klenk, H.-D., and Herrler, G., 1991, Isolated HE protein from hemagglutinat-ing encephalomyelitis virus and bovine Coronavirus has receptor-destroying and receptor-binding activity, Virology 180:221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sekimizu, K., and Romberg, A., 1988, Cardiolipin activation of dnaA protein, the initiation protein of replication in Escherichia coli, J. Biol. Chem. 263:7131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sethna, P. B., Hung, S.-L., and Brian, D. A., 1989, Coronavirus subgenomic minus-strand RNAs and the potential for mRNA replicons, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:5626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Siddell, S. G., Barthel, A., and ter Meulen, V., 1981, Coronavirus JHM: A virion associated protein kinase, J. Gen. Virol. 52:235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Siddell, S. G., Wege, H., and ter Meulen, V., 1982, The structure and replication of coronaviruses, in: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 99 (M. Cooper et al., eds.), pp. 131–163, Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Skinner, M. A., and Siddell, S. G., 1983, Coronavirus JHM: Nucleotide sequence of the mRNA that encodes nucleocapsid protein, Nucleic Acid Res. 11:5045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sorensen, O., and Dales, S., 1985, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: JHM virus in the rat central nervous system localized by in situ cDNA hybridization and immunofluores-cent microscopy, J. Virol. 56:434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sorensen, O., Percy, D., and Dales, S., 1980, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. III. JHM virus infection of rats, Arch. Neurol. 37:478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sorensen, O., Dugre, R., Percy, D., and Dales, S., 1982, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: Endogenous factors influencing demyelinating disease caused by mouse hepatitis virus in rats and mice, Infect. Immun. 37:1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sorensen, O., Beushausen, S., Puchalski, S., Cheley, S., Anderson, R., Coulter-Mackie, M., and Dales, S., 1984a, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. VIII. Genetic, immunologic and cellular influences on JHM virus infection on rats, in: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses (P. J. M. Rottier et al., eds.), pp. 279–297, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sorensen, O., Coulter-Mackie, M. B., Puchalski, S., and Dales, S., 1984b, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. IX. Progression of JHM virus infection in the central nervous system of the rat during overt and asymptomatic phases, Virology 137:347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sorensen, O., Beushausen, S., Coulter-Mackie, M., Adler, R., and Dales, S., 1987a, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease, in: Viruses, immunity and mental disorders (K. Kurstak, Z. J. Lipowski, and P. V. Morozow, eds.), pp. 199–210, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  173. Sorensen, O., Saravani, A., and Dales, S., 1987b, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. XVII. The infectious process in athymic rats inoculated with JHM virus, Microb. Pathol 2:79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Spaan, W., Cavanagh, D., and Horzinek, M. C., 1988, Coronaviruses: Structure and genome expression, J. Gen. Virol. 69:2939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Stauber, R., Pleiderera, M., and Siddell, S., 1993, Proteolytic cleavage of murine Coronavirus surface glycoprotein is not required for fusion activity, J. Gen. Virol. 74:183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Stewart, J. N., Mounir, S., and Talbot, P. J., 1992, Human Coronavirus gene expression in brains of multiple sclerosis patients, Virology 191:502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stohlman, S. A., and Frelinger, J. A., 1978, Resistance to fatal central nervous system disease by mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM. I. Genetic analysis, Immunogenetics 6:271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stohlman, S. A., and Weiner, L. P., 1978, Stability of neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain) during chronic infection of neuroblastoma cells, Arch. Virol. 57:53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Stohlman, S. A., Baric, R. S., Nelson, G. N., Soe, L. H., Welter, L. M., and Deans, R. J., 1983, Synthesis and subcellular localization of the murine Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein, Virology 130:527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Stohlman, S. A., Matsushima, G. K., Casteel, N., and Weiner, L. P., 1986, In vivo effects of coronavirus-specific T cell clones: DTH inducer cells prevent a lethal infection but do not inhibit virus replication, J. Immunol. 136:3052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Stohlman, S. A., Sussman, M. A., Matsushima, G. K., Shubin, R. A., and Erlich, S. S., 1988, Delayed-type hypersensitivity response in the central nervous system during JHM virus infection requires viral specificity for protection, J. Neuroimmunol. 19:255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stohlman, S. A., Kyuwa, S., Cohen, M., Bergmann, C., Polo, J. M., Yeh, J., Anthony, R., and Keck, J. G., 1992, Mouse hepatitis virus nucleocapsid protein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are Ld restricted and specific for the carboxy terminus, Virology 189:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sturman, L. S., Holmes, K. V., and Behnke, J., 1980, Isolation of Coronavirus envelope glycoproteins and interaction with the viral nucleocapsid, J. Virol. 33:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Sturman, L. S., Ricard, C. S., and Holmes, K. V., 1985, Proteolytic cleavage of the EL glycoprotein of murine Coronavirus: Activation of cell-fusing activity of virion by trypsin and separation of two different 90 K cleavage fragments, J. Virol. 56:904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Sussman, M. A., Shubin, R. A., Kyuwa, S., and Stohlman, S. A., 1989, T-cell-mediated clearance of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM from the central nervous system, J. Virol. 63:3051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Suzumura, A., Lavi, E., Weiss, S. B., and Silberberg, D. H., 1986, Coronavirus infection induces H-2 antigen expression on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, Science 232:991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Suzumura, A., Lavi, E., Bhat, S., Murasko, D., and Weiss, S. A., 1988, Induction of the glial cell MHC antigen expression in neurotropic Coronavirus infections. Characterization of the H-2 inducing soluble factor elaborated by infected brain cells, J. Immun. 140:2068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Swift, A. M., and Machamer, C. E., 1991, A Golgi retention signal in a membrane-spanning domain of Coronavirus El protein, J. Cell. Biol. 115:19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Taguchi, F., 1993, Fusion formation by the uncleaved spike protein of murine Coronavirus JHMV variant cl-2, J. Virol. 67:1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Taguchi, F., and Fleming, J. O., 1989, Comparison of six different murine Coronavirus JHM variants by monoclonal antibodies against E2 glycoprotein, Virology 169:233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Taguchi, F., and Siddell, S. G., 1985, Difference in sensitivity to interferon among mouse hepatitis viruses with high and low virulence for mice, Virology 147:41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Taguchi, F., Goto, Y., Aiuchi, M., Hayshi, T., and Fujiwara, K., 1979, Pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus infection. The role of nasal epithelial cells as a primary target of low-virulence virus, MHV-S, Microb. Immunol. 23:249.Google Scholar
  193. Taguchi, F., Siddell, S., Wege, H., and ter Meulen, V., 1985, Characterization of a variant virus selected in rat brains after infection by Coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus JHM, J. Virol. 54:429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Taguchi, F., Massa, P. T., and ter Meulen, V., 1986, Characterization of a variant isolated from neural cell culture after infection of mouse Coronavirus JHMV, Virology 155:267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Talbot, P. J., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1985, Antigenic variation among murine coronaviruses: Evidence for polymorphism on the peplomer glycoprotein E2, Virus Res. 2:317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Talbot, P. J., Salmi, A. A., Knobler, R. L., and Buchmeier, M. J., 1984, Topographical mapping of epitopes on the glycoproteins of murine hepatitis virus-4 (strain-JHM): Correlation with biological activities, Virology 132:250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Tanaka, R., Iwasaki, Y., and Koprowski, H., 1976, Ultrastructural studies of perivascular cuffing cells in multiple sclerosis brain, J. Neurol. Sci. 28:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Tardieu, M., Boespflug, O., and Barbe, T., 1986, Selective tropism of a neurotropic Coronavirus for ependymal cells, neurons, and meningeal cells, J. Virol. 60:574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Taylor, C. E., Weiser, W. Y., and Bang, F. B., 1981, In vitro macrophage manifestation of cortisone-induced decrease in resistance to mouse hepatitis virus, J. Exp. Med. 153:732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tooze, J., Tooze, S., and Warren, G., 1984, Replication of Coronavirus MHV-A59 in sac-cells: Determination of the first site of budding of progeny virions, Eur. f. Cell. Biol. 33:281.Google Scholar
  201. Trachsel, H., Sonnenberg, N., Shatkin, A. J., Rose, J. K., Leong, K., Bergmann, J. E., Gordon, J., and Baltimore, D., 1980, Purification of a factor that restores translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA in extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. van Alstyne, D., and Paty, D. W., 1983, The effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on restricted replication of rubella virus in rat glial cells in culture, Virology 124:173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. van Berlo, M. F., Wolswijk, G., Calafat, J., Koolen, M. J. M., Horzinek, M. C., and van de Zeijst, B. A. M., 1986, Restricted replication of mouse hepatitis virus A59 in primary mouse brain astrocytes correlates with reduced pathogenicity, J. Virol. 58:426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. van Berlo, M. F., Warringa, R., Wolswijk, G., and Lopez-Cardoso, M., 1989, Vulnerability of rat and mouse brain cells to murine hepatitis virus (JHM-strain): Studies in vivo and in vitro, Glia 2:85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. van Dinter, S., and Flintoff, W. F., 1987, Rat glial C6 cells are defective in murine Coronavirus internalization, J. Gen. Virol. 68:1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Virelizier, J. L., and Allison, A. C., 1976, Correlation of persistent mouse hepatitis (MHV-3) infection with its effects on mouse macrophage cultures, Arch. Virol. 50:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Vlasak, R., Luytjes, W., Leider, J., Spaan, W., and Palese, P., 1988, The E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetyl esterase activity, J. Virol. 62:4686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wang, F.-I., Fleming, J. O., and Lai, M. M. C., 1992, Sequence analysis of the spike protein gene of murine Coronavirus variants: Study of genetic sites affecting neuropathogenicity, Virology 186:742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Watanabe, R., Wege, H., and ter Meulen, V, 1983, Adoptive transfer of EAE-like lesions from rats with coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis, Nature 305:150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wege, H., Koga, M., Watanabe, R., Nagashina, K., and ter Meulen, V, 1983, Neurovirulence of murine Coronavirus JHM temperature-sensitive mutants in rats, Infect. Immun. 39:1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Wege, H., Watanabe, H., and ter Meulen, V, 1984, Relapsing subacute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in rats during the course of Coronavirus JHM infection, J. Neuroimmun. 6:325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Weiss, S. B., 1983, Coronaviruses SD and SK share extensive nucleotide homology with murine Coronavirus MHV-A59, more than that shared between human and murine coronaviruses, Virology 126:669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Weiss, S. B., and Leibowitz, J. L., 1983, Characterization of murine Coronavirus RNA by hybridization with virus-specific cDNA probes, J. Gen. Virol. 64:127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Wilbur, S. M., Nelson, G. W., Lai, M. C., McMillan, M., and Stohlman, S. A., 1986, Phosphorylation of the mouse hepatitis virus nucleocapsid protein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141:7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Williams, R. K., Gui-Sen, J., and Holmes, K. V, 1991, Receptor for mouse hepatitis virus is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family of glycoproteins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:5533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Williamson, J. S. P., and Stohlman, S. A., 1990, Effective clearance of mouse hepatitis virus from the central nervous system requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, J. Virol. 64:4589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Wilson, G. A. R., and Dales, S., 1988, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: Efficiency of virus spread and formation of infectious centers among glial cells is genetically determined by the murine host, J. Virol. 62:3371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Wilson, G. A. R., Mohandas, D. V, and Dales, S., 1990, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. Possible relationship between induction of regulatory subunit form cAMP dependent protein kinases and inhibition of JHMV replication in cultured oligodendrocytes, in: Coronaviruses and Their Diseases (D. Cavanagh and T. D. K. Brown, eds.), pp. 261–266, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Yamaguchi, K., Goto, N., Kyuwa, S., Hayami, M., and Toyoda, Y., 1991, Protection of mice from a lethal Coronavirus infection in the central nervous system by adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cell clones, J. Neuroimmunol. 32:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Yokomori, K., and Lai, M. M. C., 1992, Mouse hepatitis virus utilizes two antigens as alternative receptors, J. Virol. 66:6194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Yokomori, K., Bakers, S. C., Stohlman, S. A., and Lai, M. M. C., 1992, Hemagglutinin-esterase-specific monoclonal antibodies alter the neuropathogenicity of mouse hepatitis virus, J. Virol. 66:2865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Yoshikawa, Y., and Yamanouchi, K., 1984, Effect of papaverine treatment on replication of measles virus in human neural and nonneural cells, J. Virol 50:489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Zimmer, M. J., and Dales, S., 1989, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. XXIV. The infectious process in cyclosporin A treated Wistar Lewis rats inoculated with JHM virus, Microb. Pathol 6:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zimprich, F., Winter, J., Wege, H., and Lassmann, H., 1991, Coronavirus induced primary demyelination: Indications for the involvement of a humoral immune response, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 17:469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Zurbriggen, A., Vandevelde, M., and Vollo, E., 1987, Demyelinating, non-demyelinating and attenuated canine distemper virus strains induce oliogodendroglial cytolysis in vitro, J. Neuro. Sci. 79:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Dales
    • 1
  • Robert Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Cytobiology Group, Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations