Computer Applications in Behavioral Medicine

  • Gerhard Werner
Part of the Springer Series in Rehabilitation and Health book series (SSRH)

Abstract

Conceived in the 1970s, behavioral medicine has since outgrown its original conceptual foundations of learning and conditioning; it has assimilated aspects of cognitive therapy, behavioral family therapy, and social skills training and also blended these approaches, to some extent, with pharmacotherapy It has also extended its scope from assessment and therapy to prevention and rehabilitation (Kaptein & Rooijen, 1990). Despite this increase in scope and diversity, behavioral medicine has adhered to essential principles of behavior therapy, insisting on quantitative measures of observables, emphasis on performance and action, and the priority of manifest current functioning over inferred psychological processes (Bellack & Hersen, 1990; Wixted, Bellack, & Hersen, 1990). Operational, objective, and quantitative characteristics of these principles seem to be promising candidates for computer-based procedures of one kind or another. A few innovative and forward looking clinician-investigators had already recognized this during the formative stages of behavioral medicine. Yet, despite fairly consistent reports of satisfactory results, current health-care practitioners have not applied computer-based approaches in behavioral medicine as widely as seems warranted by the apparent match between the tasks and the computer’s potential as assistive tool. Agras (1987) addressed this issue in his Presidential Address to the 20th Annual Meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy; in his discussion—“Where Do We Go from Here?”—he drew attention to the desirability of building on already existing, successful computer applications, and stressed the potential of developing promising new applications.

Keywords

Behavior Research Method Family Therapy Behavioral Medicine Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Test Anxiety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ager, A., & Bendall, S. (Eds.). (1991). Microcomputers and clinical psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Agras, W. S. (1987). So where do we go from here? (Presidential Address). Behavior Therapy, 18, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B., Feldman, D. E., Losch, M., & Burnett, K. F. (1990). Developing computer-assisted therapy for the treatment of obesity. Behavior Therapy, 21, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agras, W. S., Taylor, B., Kraemer, H. C., Allen, R. A., & Schneider, J. A. (1980). Relaxation training. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 859–863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Altman, H., Brown, M. L., & Sletten, I. W. (1972). And silently steal away: A study of elopers. Diseases of the Nervous System, 33, 52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Angle, H. V. (1981). The interviewing computer: A technology for gathering comprehensive treatment information. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 13, 607–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angle, H. V., Hay, L R., Hay, W. M., & Ellinwood, E. H. (1977). Computer assisted behavior assessment. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment (pp. 369–380). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  8. Angle, H. V., Johnson T. J., Grebenkemper, N. S., & Ellinwood, C. H. (1979). Computer interview support for clinicians. Professional Psychology, 10, 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aradi, N. S. (1985). The application of computer technology to behavioral marital therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 1(1/2), 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atkinson, B. J., & McKenzie, P. N. (1984). The Personalized Spouse Observation Checklist: A computer-generated assessment of marital interaction. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 10(4), 427–429.Google Scholar
  11. Baer, L., Minichiello, W E., Jenike, M., & Holland, A. (1988). Use of a portable computer program to assist behavioral treatment in a case of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 19, 237–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C. P., & Cole, R. E. (1982). Family free-play interaction: Setting and methods. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47(Ser. No. 197, No. 5), 36–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bana, D. S., Leviton, A., Swindler, C., Slack, W., & Graham, J. R. (1980). A computer-based headache interview: Acceptance by patients and physicians. Headache, 20, 85–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  15. Barber, J. (1990). Computer-assisted drug prevention. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 7(2), 125–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Batchelor, J., Shores, E. A., Marosszeky, J. E., & Sandaman, J. (1988). Cognitive rehabilitation of severely closed-head-injured patients using computer-assisted and noncomputerized treatment techniques. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 3(3), 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beatty, J. (1971). Effects of initial alpha wave abundance and operant training procedures on occipital alpha and beta wave activity. Psychonomic Science, 23, 197–199.Google Scholar
  18. Beaumont, J. G. (1991). Expert systems and the clinical psychologist. In A. Ager (Ed.), Microcomputers and clinical psychology (pp. 175–193). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Beck, R. J., Ellis, L.B.M., Scott, D., Raines, J. R., & Hakanson, N. (1982). Microcomputer as patient educator. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 39, 2105–2108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. (1990). Handbook of comparative treatments for adult disorders. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Ben-Yishay, Y., Diller, L., Rattock, J., Ross, B., Schaier, A., & Scherger, P. (1983). Working approaches to remediation of cognitive deficits in brain damage. In 7th Annual Workshop for Rehabilitation Professionals, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Bernadt, M. W., Daniels, O. J., Blizard, R. A., & Murray, R. M. (1989). Can a computer reliably elicit an alcohol history? British Journal of Addiction, 84(4), 405–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Biglan, A., Villwock, G., & Wick, S. (1979). The feasibility of a computer controlled program for the treatment of test anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10, 47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Binik, Y. M., Servan-Schreiber, D., Freiwald, S., & Hall, K. (1988). Intelligent computer-based assessment and psychotherapy: An expert system for sexual dysfunction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176(1), 387–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Block, B. (1986). Computer-assisted psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 16(1), 72–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blomeyer, R. L., & Dianne, M. C. (1991). Case studies of computer aided learning. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  27. Bloom, A. J. (1985). An anxiety management approach to computerphobia. Training and Development Journal, 39(1), 90–92.Google Scholar
  28. Bluhm, H. P. (1988). Computers in guidance, counseling and psychotherapy. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  29. Bosworth, K., Gustafson, D. H., Hawkins, R. P., Chewing, B., & Day, T. (1983). Adolescents, health education, and computers. Health Education, 14(6), 58–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bradley, V., Welch, J. L., & Skilbeck, C. E. (1991). Cognitive retraining using microcomputers. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  31. Brownbridge, G., Fitter, M., & Sime, M. (1984). The doctor’s use of a computer in the consulting room: An analysis. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21, 65–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buglione, S. A., DeVito, A. J., & Mulloy, J. M. (1990). Traditional group therapy and computer-administered treatment for test anxiety. Anxiety Research, 3(1), 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burling, T. A., Marotta, J., Gonzales, R., & Moltzen, J. O. (1989). Computerized smoking cessation program for the worksite: Treatment outcome and feasibility. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(5), 619–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Burnett, K. F., Magel, P. M., Harrington, S., & Taylor, C. B. (1989). Computer-assisted behavioral health counseling for high school students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 63–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burnett, K. F., Taylor, C. B., & Agras, W. S. (1985). Ambulatory computer-assisted therapy for obesity: A new frontier for behavior therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(5), 698–703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Butler, R. W., & Namerow, N. S. (1988). Cognitive retraining in brain-injury rehabilitation: A critical review. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 2(3), 93–101.Google Scholar
  37. Cairo, P. C. (1983). Evaluating the effects of computer-assisted counseling systems: A selective review. The Counseling Psychologist, 11, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Canoune, H. L., & Leyhe, E. W. (1985). Human versus computer interviewing. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 103–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cardozo, L., Krishnan, K. R., & Polkey, C. E. (1984). Urodynamic observations in patients with sacral anterior root stimulation. Paraplegia, 22, 201–209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Carr, A. C., & Ghosh, A. (1983). Response of phobic patients to direct computer assessment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 60–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carr, A. C., Ghosh, A., & Ancill, R. J. (1983). Can a computer take a psychiatric history? Psychological Medicine, 13, 151–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Carr, A. C., Ghosh, A., & Marks, I. M. (1988). Computer-supervised exposure treatment for phobias. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 112–117.Google Scholar
  43. Carr, A. C., Wilson, S. L., Ghosh, A., Ancil, R. J., & Woods, R. T (1982). Automated testing of geriatric patients using a microcomputer-based system. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 28, 297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carr, T. C. (1991). Microcomputers and psychological treatment. In A. Ager (Ed.), Microcomputers and clinical psychology (pp. 65–78). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Caruso, D. (1984, September). Software probes the minds. InfoWorld, 6, pp. 34–39.Google Scholar
  46. Cassel, R. N. (1971). Systems analysis approach to computer-based counseling for addiction treatment. The International Journal of Addictions, 6, 493–495.Google Scholar
  47. Cassel, R. N. (1977). A computerized pastoral counseling system. Psychology, 14, 20–23.Google Scholar
  48. Chandler, G. M., Burck, H., & Sampson, J. P. (1988). The effectiveness of a generic program for systematic desensitization. Computers in Human Behavior, 4, 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chen, M., Houston, T., & Burson, J. (1983). Microcomputer-based health education in the waiting room. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 9, 90.Google Scholar
  50. Christensen, M., Chaudhary, S. S., Gottshall, R., Hartman, J., & Yatcilla, D. (1989). EASE: A user interface for the elderly. In G. Salvendy & M. J. Smith (Eds.), Designing and using human-computer interfaces and knowledge based systems (pp. 428–435). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  51. Chute, D. L., Conn, G., DiPasquale, M. C., & Hoag, M. (1988). ProsthesisWare: A new class of software supporting the activities of daily living. Neuropsychology, 2(1), 41–57.Google Scholar
  52. Clark, W. A., & Molnar, C. E. (1964). The LINC: Description of a laboratory instrument computer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 274, 194–198.Google Scholar
  53. Colby, K. M. (1973). Simulations of belief systems. In R. C. Schank & K. M. Colby (Eds.), Computer models of thought and language (pp. 251–286). San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  54. Colby, K. M., Faught, W. S., & Parkinson, R. C. (1979). Cognitive therapy of paranoid conditions: Heuristic suggestions based on a computer simulation model. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3(1), 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Colby, K. M., Gould, R. L., & Aronson, G. (1989). Some pros and cons of computer-assisted psychotherapy. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177(2), 105–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Colby, K. M., Watt, J. B., & Gilbert, J. P. (1966). A computer method of psychotherapy: Preliminary communication. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 142(2), 148–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Constantine, J. A. (1985a). Computers and family therapy: An epilogue. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  58. Constantine, L. L. (1985b). Computer-aided assessment: Design considerations. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy (pp. 89–103). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  59. Couzijn, A. L., Ros, WJ.G., & Winnubst, J.A.M. (1990). Cancer. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 231–246). Chichester, UK/New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Crofts, F., & Crofts, J. (1988). Biofeedback and the computer. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51(2), 57–59.Google Scholar
  61. Cromwell, R., Fournier, D., & Kvebaek, D. (1980). The Kvebaek family sculpture technique. Jonesboro, TN: Pilgrimage.Google Scholar
  62. D’Zurilla, T. J. (1986). Problem solving training. In T. J. D’Zurilla (Ed.), Problem solving therapy (pp. 93–142). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  63. Davidson, R. S. (1984). Applications of computer technology to learning therapy. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 6, 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Deardorff, W. W. (1986). Computerized health education: A comparison with traditional forms. Health Education Quarterly, 13(1), 61–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Devine, E. C., O’Connor, F. W., Cook, T. D., Wenk, V. A., & Curtin, T. R. (1988). Clinical and financial effects of psychoeducational care provided by staff nurses to adult surgical patients in the post-DRG environment. American Journal of Public Health, 75(10), 1293–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dombai, F. T. (1987). Ethical considerations concerning computers in medicine in the 1980s. Journal of Medical Ethics, 13, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Donner, L., & Guerney, B. G. (1969). Automated group desensitization for test anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 7, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Duffy, J. C., & Waterton, J. J. (1984). Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in sample surveys: The effect of computer interviewing in fieldwork. British Journal of Addiction, 79(3), 303–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Dworkin, B., & Dworkin, S. (1988). The treatment of scoliosis by continuous automated postural feedback. In R. Ader, H. Weiner, & A. Baum (Eds.), Experimental foundations of behavioral medicine: Conditioning approaches (pp. 67–86). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  70. Edwards, R., & Engelhardt, K G. (1989). Microprocessor-based innovations and older individuals: AARP survey results and their implications for service robotics. International Journal of Technology and Aging, 2(1), 42–55.Google Scholar
  71. Eiduson, B. T., Brooks, S. H., Motto, R. L., Platz, A., & Carmichael, R. (1968). New strategy for psychiatric research, utilizing the Psychiatric Case History Event System. In N. S. Kline & L. E. Ellis (Eds.), Computers and electronic devices in psychiatry. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  72. Ellis, LB.M. (1987). Computer-based patient education. Computers in Human Services, 2(3/4), 117–130.Google Scholar
  73. Ellis, L.B.M., & Raines, J. R. (1981). Health education using microcomputers: Initial acceptability. Preventive Medicine, 10, 77–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Engelhardt, K. G., & Edwards, R. (1986). Increasing independence for the aging. Byte, 11(3), 191–198.Google Scholar
  75. Epstein, L. H., & Porte, R. L (1978). Behavioral epidemiology. AABT Newsletter, 1, 3–5.Google Scholar
  76. Erdman, H. P., & Foster, S. W (1986). Computer-assisted assessment with couples and families. Family Therapy, 73(1), 23–40.Google Scholar
  77. Erdman, H. P., Greist, J. H., Klein, M. H., Jefferson, J. W., & Getto, C. (1981). The computer psychiatrist: How far have we come? Where are we heading? How far do we dare to go? Behavior Research Methods and Instruments, 13(4), 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Erdman, H. P., Klein, M. H., & Greist, J. H. (1985). Direct patient computer interviewing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(6), 760–773.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Erdman, R.A.M. (1990). Myocardial infarction and cardiac rehabilitation. In A. A. Kaptein, M. H. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral Medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 127–145). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  80. Evans, W. M., & Miller, J. R. (1969). Differential effects on response bias of computer vs. conventional administration of social science questionnaire. Behavioral Science, 14, 216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fairbairn, A. S., Woods, C. H., & Fletcher, C. M. (1959). Variability in answers to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 13, 175–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Farrell, A. D., Camplair, P. S., & McCullough, L. (1987). Identification of target complaints by computer interview: Evaluation of the computerized assessment system for psychotherapy evaluation and research. Special Issue: Eating disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(5), 691–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Figley, C. R. (Ed.). (1985). Computers and family therapy: An introduction. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  84. Fisher, L. A., Johnson, S., Porter, D., Bleich, H. L., & Slack, W V. (1977). Collection of a clean voided urine specimen: A comparison among spoken, written and computer-based instructions. American Journal of Public Health, 67(7), 640–644.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Floyd, M., & Kettle, M. (1991). A computer-based approach to measurement of employment handicap. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 14, 37–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Foree-Gavert, S., & Gavert, L. (1980). Obesity: Behavior therapy with computer-feedback versus traditional starvation treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy, 9, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Foy, D. W., Resnick, H. S., Carroll, E. M., & Osato, S. S. (1990). Behavior therapy. In A. S. Bellak & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of comparative treatments for adult disorders (pp. 302–315). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. Friedman, P. H. (1985). The use of computers in marital and family therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 7(1–2), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Frydenberg, H. (1988). Computers: Specialized applications for the older person. American Behavioral Scientist, 31(5), 595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gagliano, M. E. (1988). A literature review on the efficacy of video in patient education. Journal of Medical Education, 63, 785–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gatchel, R. J. (1974). Frequency of feedback and learned heart rate control. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 274–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. George, L. K., & Siegler, I. C. (1985). Stress and coping in later life. In E. Palmore, E. W. Busse, & G. L. Maddox (Eds.), Normal Aging III. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Gerson, R. (1985). Systems psychotherapy, the micro-computer, and the American family. Marriage and Family Review, 5(1–2). 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gervasio, A. H. (1984). Computer-assisted analysis of conversation. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 16(2), 158–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ghosh, A., & Greist J. H. (1988). Computer treatment in psychiatry. Psychiatric A nnals, 18(4), 246–250.Google Scholar
  96. Ghosh, A., Marks, I. M., & Carr, A. C. (1984). Controlled study of self-exposure treatment for phobies: Preliminary communication. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 77, 483–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Glueck, B. C., Jr., & Stroebel, C. F. (1969). The computer and the clinical decision process II. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125(Suppl.), 2–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gottschalk, L A., & Bechtel, R. J. (1982). The measurement of anxiety. Psychiatry, 23(4), 364–369.Google Scholar
  99. Gould, R. (1988). Adulthood. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  100. Gray, J. M., & Robertson, I. (1989). Remediation of attentional difficulties following brain injury: Three experimental single case studies. Brain Injury, 3, 163–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Greist, J. H. (1989). Computer-administered behavior therapies. Special Issue: Behavioural psychotherapy into the 1990’s. International Review of Psychiatry, 7(3), 267–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Greist J. H., Gustafson, D. H., Laughren, T. P., & Chiles, J. A. (1973). A computer interview for suicide-risk prediction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130(12), 1327–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Greist J. H. Jefferson J. W., Combs, A. M., Schou, M., & Thomas, A. (1977). The lithium librarian. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Greist, J. H., Jefferson, J. W., Ackerman, D. L., Baudhuin, M. G., Erdman, H. P., & Carroll, J. A. (1985). Lithium information center: The lithium library revisited. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46(8), 327–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Greist, J. H., & Klein, M. H. (1980). Computer programs, for patients, clinicians and researchers in psychiatry. In J. B. Sidowski, J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), The use of computers in the delivery of mental health care: The necessary background conditions (pp. 161–181). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  106. Greist, J. H., Klein, M. H., & Cura, LJ.V. (1973). A computer interview for psychiatric patient target symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 247–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Groenman, N. H., VlaeyenJ.WS., Eck, H., & Schuerman, J. A. (1990). Chronic pain. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 51–66). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  108. Grossfeld, M. L., & Grossfeld, C. A. (1986). Microcomputer applications in rehabilitation of communicative disorders. Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  109. Hammer J. S., Hammond, D., Strain, J. J., & Lyons J. S. (1985). Microcomputers and consultation psychiatry. General Hospital Psychiatry, 7, 119–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hannah, K. J., Conlay-Rice, P., Fenty, D., McKiel, E., Soltes, D., Hogan, T., & Wiens, D. (1989). Computer applications for staff development and patient education. Method Inform. Med, 28, 261–266.Google Scholar
  111. Hedlund, J. L., Evenson, R. C., Sletten, I. W., & Cho, D. W. (1980). The computer and clinical prediction. In J. B. Sidowski J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), The use of computers in the delivery of mental health care: The necessary background conditions (pp. 201–235). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  112. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. (Ed.). (1981). Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  113. Holden, C. (1977). The empathic computer. Science, 198, 32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hollander, E. K., & Plummer, H. R. (1986). An innovative therapy and enrichment program for senior adults utilizing the personal computer. Activities, Adaptation and Aging, 8(1), 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Howland, E. W., & Siegman, A. W. (1982). Toward the automated measurement of the type-A behavior pattern. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5(1), 37–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Johnson, D. F., & White, C. B. (1980). Effects of training on computer test performance in the elderly. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 357–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Johnson, J. J., Gianetti, R. A., & Williams, T. A. (1979). psychological Systems Questionnaire: An objective personality test designed for on-line computer presentation, scoring and interpretation. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 11(2), 257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Johnson, J. J., Williams, T. A., Klingle, D. E., & Gianetti, R. A. (1977). Interventional relevance and retrofit programming: Concepts for the improvement of clinician-acceptance of computer-generated assessment reports. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 9(2), 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Johnson, R. (1990). Modifying memory function: Use of a computer to train mnemonic skills. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29(4), 437–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Johnston, M., Weinman, J., & Marteau, T. M. (1990). Health psychology in hospital settings. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 15–31). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  121. Kanfer, F. H., & Goldstein, A. P. (1991). Helping people change (4th ed.). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  122. Kaptein, A. A., & Rookjen, E. (1990). Behavioral medicine—some introductory remarks. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 3–13). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  123. Katzman, R., Lasker, B., & Bernstein, N. (1986). Accuracy of diagnosis and consequences of misdiagnosis of disorders causing dementia. In Office of technology assessment (pp. 1–110). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  124. Kazdin, A. E. (1981). Behavioral observation. In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (pp. 101–124). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  125. Klein, M. H., Greist, J. H., & Cura, L.J.V. (1975). Computers and psychiatry: Promises to keep. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 837–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Klingler, D. E., Miller, D. A., Johnson, J. J., & Williams, T. A. (1977). Process evaluation of an on-line computer-assisted unit for intake assessment of mental health patients. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 9(2), 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kolotkin, R. L (1981). Computers in biofeedback research and therapy. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 13(4), 532–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kreutzer, J. S., Conder, R., Wehman, P., & Morrison, C. (1989). Compensatory strategies for enhancing independent living and vocational outcome following traumatic brain injury. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 7(1), 30–35.Google Scholar
  129. Lang, P. (1980). Behavioral treatment and bio-behavioral assessment. In J. B. Sidowski, J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), The use of computers in the delivery of mental health care: The necessary background conditions (pp. 119–137). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  130. Lang, P. J. (1969). The “on-line” computer in behavior therapy research. American Psychologist, 24, 236–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lang, P. J. (1974). Learned control of human heart rate in a computer directed environment. In P. A. Obrist, A. H. Black, J. Brener, & L. V. DiCara (Eds.), Cardiovascular physiology (pp. 392–405). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  132. Lang, P. J., Melamed, B. J., & Hart, J. (1970). A psychophysiological analysis of fear modification using an automated desensitization procedure. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lang, P. J., Troyer, G. W. Twentyman, C. T., & Gatchel, P. J. (1975). Differential effects of heart rate modification training on college students, older males and patients with ischemic heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 429–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lawrence, G. H. (1986). Using computers for the treatment of psychological problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 2, 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lehtinen, M. W., & Smith, G. W (1985). MATESIM: Computer assisted marriage analysis for family therapists. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy (pp. 117–131). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  136. Leventhal, H., Prohaska, T. R., & Hirschman, R. S. (1985). Preventive health behavior across the life-span. In J. Rosen & L. J. Solomon (Eds.), Preventing health risk behaviors and promoting coping with illness. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  137. Levitan, K. B., & Willis, E. A. (1985). Barriers to practitioners’ use of information technology utilization: A discussion and results of a study. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family practice (pp. 21–35). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  138. Lockshin, S., & Harrison, K. (1991). Computer-assisted assessment of psychological problems. In A. Ager (Ed.), Microcomputers and clinical psychology (pp. 47–63). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  139. Lucas, R. W., Mullin, P. J., Luna, C.B.X., & Mclnroy, D. C. (1977). Psychiatrist and a computer as interrogators of patients with alcohol-related illnesses: A comparison. British Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 160–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Luiselli, J. K. (1989). Health-threatening behaviors. In J. K. Luiselli (Ed.), Behavioral medicine and developmental disabilities (pp. 114–151). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Luria, A. R., Naydin, F. L., Tsvetkova, L. S., & Vinarksy, E. N. (1969). Restoration of higher cortical function following local brain injury. In P. J. Vinken & G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology (Vol. 3). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  142. Lynch, W. J. (1990a). Cognitive prostheses for the brain impaired. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 5(3), 78–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lynch, W. J. (1990b). Selecting a computer for rehabilitation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 5(4), 101–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mahoney, M. J. (1977). Some applied issues in self-monitoring. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment (pp. 241–254). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  145. Malcolm, R., Sturgis, E. T., Anton, R. F., & Williams, L. (1989). Computer-assisted diagnosis of alcoholism. Computers in Human Services, 5(3–4), 163–170.Google Scholar
  146. Malee, E. A., Goldstein, G., & McCue, M. (1991). Predictors of memory training success in patients with closed heady injury. Neuropsychology, 5(1), 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Maultsby, M. C., & Slack, W. V. (1971). A computer-based psychiatric history system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 570–572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Maurer, K., Biel, H., Kuhner, C., & Loffler, W (1989). On the way to expert systems: Comparing DSM-III computer diagnoses with CATEGO (ICD) diagnoses in depressive and schizophrenic patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 239(1), 127–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mauer, K., Hillig, A., Freyberger, H. J., & Veithausen, S. (1991). Erfahrungen mit den “Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry” im Rahmen einer multizentrischen Feldstudie. Schweizer Archiv fuer Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 142(5), 235–245.Google Scholar
  150. McCullough, L., Farrell, A. D., & Longabough, R. (1984). The making of a computerized assessment system: Problems, pitfalls and pleasures. In M. D. Schwartz (Ed.), Using computers in clinical practice. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  151. McCullough, L., Farrell, A. D., & Longabaugh, R. (1986). The development of a microcomputer-based mental health information system. American Psychologist, 41(2), 207–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. McGrane, W L., Allely, E. B., & Toth, F. J. (1990). The use of interactive media for HIV/AIDS prevention in the military community. Military Medicine, 155(6), 235–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. McGuire, B. E. (1990). Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation. Irish Journal of Psychology, 11(4), 299–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McLemore, C. W., & Fantuzzo, J. W (1982). CARE: Bridging the gap between clinicians and computers. Professional Psychology, 13, 501–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mead, D. E., Cain, M. W., & Steele, K. (1985). A computer data based management system for a family therapy clinic. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy (pp. 49–88). New York. Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  156. Meehl, P. (1978). Theoretical risks and tabular asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the slow progress of soft psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(4), 806–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mezzich, J. E. (Ed.). (1986). Clinical care and information systems in psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  158. Miller, R. A., Schaffner, K. F., & Meisel, A. (1985). Ethical and legal issues related to the use of computers in clinical medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine, 102(4), 529–536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Molnar, C. E., & Clark, W. A. (1990). Development of the LINC. In B. I. Blum & K. Duncan (Eds.), A history of medical informatics (pp. 119–130). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  160. Morris, J. N., Hawes, C., Fries, B. E., Phillips, C. D., Mor, V., Katz, S., Murphy, K., Drugovich, M. L., & Friedlob, A. S. (1990). Designing the National Resident Assessment Instrument for nursing homes. Gerontologist, 30(5), 293–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mulder, L.J.M., Maarse, F. J., Sjouw, W.P.B., & Akkerman, A. E. (Ed.). (1991). Computers in psychology. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  162. Mulholland, T. (1977). Testing hypotheses with feedback methods. In International Conference on Bio-feedback and Self-regulation, Tuebingen, Germany.Google Scholar
  163. Murphy, J. M., Neff, R. K., Sobol, A. M., Rice, J. X., & Olivier, D. C. (1985). Computer diagnosis of depression and anxiety: The Stirling County study. Psychological Medicine, 15, 99–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Napper, S. A., Robey, B. L., & McAfee, P. H. (1989). An expert system for use in the prescription of electronic augmentative and alternative communication devices. AACAugmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(2), 128–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Nelson, R. O. (1977). Methodological issues in assessment via self-monitoring. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment (pp. 217–240). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  166. Nix, D., & Spiro, R. J. (1990). Cognition, education and multimedia. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  167. Olevitch, B. A., & Hagan, B. J. (1991). An interactive videodisc as a tool in the rehabilitation of the chronically mentally ill: A preliminary investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 7(1), 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Olson, D. H. (1985). Microcomputers for couple and family assessment: ENRICH and other inventories. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy (pp. 105–115). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  169. Overby M. A. (1987). PSYEXPERT: An expert system prototype for aiding psychiatrists in the diagnosis of psychotic disorders. Compu BiolMed, 17(6), 383–393.Google Scholar
  170. Paggeot, B., Kvale, S., Mace, F. C., & Sharkey R. W. (1988). Some merits and limitation of hand-held computers for data collection. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Perrez, M. (1988). Bewältigung von Alltagsbelastungen und seelische Gesundheit: Zusammenhange auf der Grundlage computer-unterstutzter Selbstbeobachtungs-und Fragebogendaten. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie Forschung und Praxis, 17(4), 292–306.Google Scholar
  172. Plutchik, R., & Karasu, T. (1991). Computers in psychotherapy: An overview. Computers in Human Behavior, 7(1–2), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Poon, L. W., & Siegler, I. C. (1991). Psychological aspects of normal aging. In J. Sadavoy, L. W. Lazarus, & L. F. Jarvick (Eds.), Comprehensive review of geriatric psychiatry (pp. 117–145). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  174. Pope, A. T., & Gerstein, C. D. (1977). Computer automation of feedback training. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 9(2), 164–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Price, K. P., & Gatchel, R. J. (1979). A perspective on clinical feedback. In R. J. Gatchel & K. P. Proce (Eds.), Clinical applications of biofeedback: Appraisal and status New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  176. Purdy M., & Nerri, L. (1989). Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation in the home. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 7(6), 34–38.Google Scholar
  177. Reich, T., Robins, L N., Woodruff, R. A., Taibleson, M., Rich, C., & Cunningham, L. (1975). Computer-assisted derivation of a screening interview for alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 847–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Reiss, D. (1971). Intimacy of problem solving. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 442–455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Reitman, R. (1984). The use of small computers in self-help sex therapy. In M. D. Schwartz (Ed.), Using computers in clinical practice: Psychotherapy and mental health applications (pp. 363–380). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  180. Robertson, I. (1990). Does computerized cognitive rehabilitation work? Aphasiology, 4, 381–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Robertson, I., Gray, J., & McKenzie, S. (1988). Microcomputer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect: Three multiple-baseline single case studies. Brain Injury, 2, 151–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Roemer, R. A. (1975). Some interactive computer applications in a physiological psychology laboratory. American Psychologist, 30, 295–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Romanczyk, R. G. (1986). Clinical utilization of microcomputer technology. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  184. Rome, H. P (1967). Prospects for a Psi-Net: The fourth quantum advance in psychiatry. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 8(6), 450–454.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Rosenman, R. H. (1978). The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern. In T. Dembroski, S. Weiss, J. Shields, S. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  186. Sampson, J. P. (1983). An integrated approach to computer applications in counseling psychology. Counseling Psychologist, 11(8), 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sampson, J. P. (1984). Maximizing the effectiveness of computer applications in counseling and human development: The role of research and implementation strategies. Journal of Counseling and Development, 63, 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1986). The use of computer-assisted instruction in support of psychotherapeutic processes. Computers in Human Behavior, 2, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sampson, J. P., & Pyle, K. R. (1983). Ethical issues involved with the use of computer-assisted counseling, testing and guidance systems. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61(5), 283–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Schinke, S. P., Orlandi, M. A., Gordon, A. N., & Weston, R. E. (1989). AIDS prevention via computer-based intervention. Computers in Human Services, 5(3–4), 147–156.Google Scholar
  191. Schneider, S. J., Walter, R., & O’Donnell, R. (1990). Computerized communication as a medium for behavioral smoking cessation treatment: Controlled evaluation. Computers in Human Behavior, 6(2), 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Schnelle, J. E., & Traughber, B. (1983). A behavioral assessment system applicable to geriatric nursing facility residents. Behavioral Assessment, 5(3), 231–243.Google Scholar
  193. Schwartz, M. D. (Ed.). (1984). Using computers in clinical practice. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  194. Selmi, P. M., Klein, M. H., Greist, J. H., Johnson, J. H., & Harris, W. G. (1982). An investigation of computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy in the treatment of depression. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 14(2), 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Servan, Schreiber, D., & Binik, Y. M. (1989). Extending the intelligent tutoring system paradigm: Sex therapy as intelligent tutoring. Computers in Human Behavior, 5(4), 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Shore, J. (1986). Conversation with a computer. Computer and People, 35(7/8), 7–11.Google Scholar
  197. Sidowski, J. B., Johnson, J. H., & Williams, T. A. (1980). The use of computers in the delivery of mental health care: The necessary background conditions. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  198. Skilbeck, C. (1991). Microcomputer-based cognitive rehabilitation. In A. Ager (Ed.), Microcomputers and clinical psychology (pp. 95–118). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  199. Skinner, H. A., & Allen, B. A. (1983). Does the computer make a difference? Computerized versus face-to-face versus self-report assessment of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 267–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Skinner, H. A., Allen, B. A., Mcintosh, M. D., & Palmer, W. H. (1985). Lifestyle assessment: Applying microcomputers in family practice. British Medical Journal, 290, 212–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Slack, W., Porter, D., Witschi, J., Sullivan, M., Buxbaum, R., & Stare, F. J. (1976). Dietary interviewing by computer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 69, 514–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Slack, W. V. (1982). A history of computerized medical interviews. MD Computing, 52-59.Google Scholar
  203. Slack, W. V., & Van Cura, L. J. (1968). Patient reaction to computer-based medical interviewing. Computers and Biomedical Research, 1, 527–531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Slavin, S. (Ed.). (1982). Applying computers in social service and mental health agencies. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  205. Sletten, I. W., Altman, H., Evenson, R. C., & Cho, D. W. (1973). Computer assignment of psychotropic drugs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 595–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Soede, M. (1989). The use of information technology in rehabilitation: An overview of possibilities and new directions for applications. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 73(1/2), 5–9.Google Scholar
  207. Solomon, M. (1984). Neuromuscular stimulation: Applications in orthopedic medicine. Orthopedics (Special Issue), 7, 1111–1200.Google Scholar
  208. Sorrell, S. P., Greist, J. H., Klein, M. H. Johnson, J. H., & Harris, W. G. (1982). Enhancement of adherence to tricyclic antidepressants by computerized supervision. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 14(2), 176–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Stinson, C. H. (1989). Roles for computers in geriatric health care. International Journal of Technology and Aging, 2(1), 77–93.Google Scholar
  210. Story, T. B., & Sbordorne, R. J. (1988). The use of microcomputers in the treatment of cognitive-communicative impairments. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 3(2), 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Stout, R. L. (1981). New approaches to the design of computerized interviewing and testing systems. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 13(4), 436–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Taylor, C. B., Agras, W. S., Losch, M., & Plante, T. G. (1991). Improving the effectiveness of computer-assisted weight loss. Behavior Therapy, 22, 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Taylor, C. B., Fried, L., & Kenardy, J. (1990). The use of a real-time computer diary for data acquisition and processing. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28(1), 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Taylor, C. B., Sheik, J., Agras, W. S., Roth, W. T., Margraf, J., Maddock, R. J., & Gossard, D. (1986). Ambulatory heart rate changes in patients with panic attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 478–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Tunks, E., & Bellissimo, A. (1991). Behavioral medicine: Concepts and procedures. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  216. Turk, D. C., & Salovey, P. (1985). Cognitive structures, cognitive processes, and cognitive behavior modification: I. Client Issues. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Turkle, S. (1980). Computers as Rorschach. Society, 17(2), 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  219. van der Helm-Hylkema, H. (1990). Headache. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 67–81). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  220. van der Ploeg, H. M. (1990). Gastrointestinal disorders. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 205–216). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  221. Wadden, T. A., Luborsky, L., Greer, S., & Crits-Christoph, P. (1984). The behavioral treatment of essential hypertension: An update and comparison with pharmacological treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 403–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wagman, M. (1988). Computer psychotherapy systems. New York: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  223. Wagman, M., & Kerber, K. W (1980). PLATO DCS., an interactive computer system for personal counseling: Further development and evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27(1), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Wagman, M., & Kerber, K. W (1984). Computer-assisted counseling: Problems and prospects. Counselor Education and Supervision, 24, 142–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wakefield, R. A. (1985). Computers, family empowerment, and the psychotherapist: Conceptual overview and outlook. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Computers and family therapy (pp. 9–20). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  226. Weisman, S. (1983). Computer games for the frail elderly. Gerontologist, 23(4), 361–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Weizenbaum, J. (1976). Computer power and human reason. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  228. Weizenbaum, J. (1977). Computers as “therapists” [Letter to the Editor]. Science, 198, 354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Werner, G. (1991). Evolving paradigms of decision support systems for health professions. Heuristics, 4(1), 66–76.Google Scholar
  230. Werner, G., & Smith, E. T (1989). Conferring with an expert diagnostic consultant in geriatric psychiatry. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Biology and Medicine Society, 11, 1215–1218.Google Scholar
  231. Werner, G., & Smith, E. T. (1992). Computer-assisted geriatric patient evaluation by physician extenders. In MEDINFO-92. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  232. Wheeler, L. A., Wheeler, M. L., Ours, P., & Swider, C. (1983). Use of CAI/VIDEO in diabetes patient nutritional education. In R. E. Dayhoff (Ed.), Seventh Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (pp. 961–964). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Williams, T. A., Johnson, J. H., & Bliss, E. L (1975). A computer-assisted psychiatric assessment unit. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132(1), 1074–1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Witschi, J., Porter, D., Vogel, S., Buxbaum, R., Stare, F. J., & Slack, W (1976). A computer-based dietary counseling system. Journal of the American Dietetic Society, 69, 385–390.Google Scholar
  235. Wixted, J. T., Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. (1990). Behavior therapy. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of comparative treatments for adult disorders (pp. 17–33). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  236. Wolpe, J., & Migler, B. (1967). Automated desensitization: A case report. Behavior Research and Therapy, 5, 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zarr, M. L. (1984). Computer-mediated psychotherapy: Toward patient-selection guidelines. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 38(1), 47–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Zemcov, A., Barclay, L. L., Brush, D., & Blass, J. P. (1984). Computerized data base for evaluation and follow-up of demented outpatients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 32, 801–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Zetin, M., Warren, S., Lanssens, E., & Tominaga, D. (1987). Computerized psychiatric diagnostic interview. In SCAMC (pp. 292-298). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  240. Zwart, F. M. (1990). Insomnia. In A. A. Kaptein, H. M. van der Ploog, B. Garssen, P.J.G. Schreurs, & R. Beunderman (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Psychological treatment of somatic disorders (pp. 83–94). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Werner
    • 1
  1. 1.Highland Drive Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations