Phospholipase A2 and the Pathogenesis of Multisystem Organ Failure in Experimental and Clinical Endotoxin Shock
Synthesis and activation of phospholipases A2 have been recognized to be an integral part of the host’s response to inflammatory and infectious agents. Several functionally and structurally distinct phospholipases A2 are present in humans. Their respective roles have not been fully elucidated. A growing body of evidence has implicated the secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in the pathogenesis of the major manifestations of endotoxin shock. Herein, we will review the evidence implicating sPLA2 in the pathogenesis of septic shock in the context of the biochemical characterization, sources of synthesis in systemic inflammatory reactions such as endotoxin shock, endogenous regulation of synthesis and signal transduction pathways, endogenous modulation of activity of secreted PLA2 and experimental data which further substantiates the involvement of sPLA2 in the initiation and propagation of local and systemic inflammatory reactions.
KeywordsSeptic Shock Acute Lung Injury Acute Phase Protein Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Endotoxin Shock
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