Current Systematics of the Genus Aspergillus

  • Robert A. Samson
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 69)

Abstract

In their monograph of the genus Aspergillus, Raper and Fennell (1965) accepted 132 species subdivided into 18 groups. The generic and species concepts were well circumscribed and this monograph is still valuable and used. Several sections of the genus which remained problematic for identification have been reinvestigated, including the subgenus Aspergillus section Aspergillus (= the Aspergillus glaucus group = Eurotium) (Blaser, 1975; Pitt, 1985; Kozakiewicz, 1989), section Nigri (Al-Mussallam, 1980; Kozakiewicz, 1989 Kusters-van Someren et al., 1990, 1991), section Circumdati (Christensen, 1982), section Nidulantes = Emericella (Horie, 1980; Christensen and States, 1982), section Versicolores (Klich, 1993), section Flavi (Murakami, 1971; Murakami et al., 1982; Christensen 1981; Klich and Pitt, 1985, 1988a), section Fumigati (Frisvad and Samson, 1990; Samson et al, 1990, Nielsen and Samson, 1992) and section Restricti (Pitt and Samson, 1990b). Samson (1979, 1992, 1993) provided a compilation of the species and varieties described since 1965 with a critical review of the validity of the published taxa. The genus now contains more than 180 species, with about 70 named teleomorphs.

Keywords

Aspergillus Species Cyclopiazonic Acid Aspergillus Parasiticus Aspergillus Section Black Aspergillus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Musallam, A. (1980) Revision of the black Aspergillus Species. Dissertation. Utrecht, Netherlands, University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  2. Blaser, P. (1975) Taxonomische und physiologische Untersuchungen über die Gattung Eurotiwn Link. ex Fr.Sydowia 28, 1–49.Google Scholar
  3. Bothast, R.J. and Fennell, D.I. (1974) A medium for rapid identification and enumeration of Aspergillus flavus and related organisms. Mycologia 66, 365–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christensen, M. (1981) A synoptic key and evaluation of species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 73, 1056–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christensen, M. (1982) The Aspergillus ochraceus group: two new species from western soils and synoptic key. Mycologia 74, 210–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christensen, M. and States, J.S. (1982) Aspergillus nidulans group: Aspergillus navahoensis, and a revised synoptic key. Mycologia 74, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cruickshanck R.H. and Pitt, J.I. (1990) Enzyme patterns in Aspergillus flavus and closely related taxa, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 259–264. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Debeaupuis, J.P., Sarfati, P., Goris, A., Stynen, D. Diaquin, M. and Latgé, J.P. (1990) Exocellular polysaccharides of Aspergillus fumigatus and related taxa, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”. (Samson, R.A. and J.I. Pitt, Eds), pp. 309–320. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Fennell, D.I. (1977) Aspergillus taxonomy, in “Genetics and Physiology of Aspergillus” (Smith, J.E. & Pateman, J.E., Eds), pp.1–21, Academic press, London.Google Scholar
  10. Frisvad, J.C. and Samson, R.A. (1990) Chemotaxonomy and morphology of Aspergillus fumigatus and related taxa, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 201–208. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Frisvad, J.C., Hawksworth, D.L, Kozakiewicz, Z., Pitt, J. I., Samson, R.A. and Stolk A.C. (1990) Proposal to conserve important species names in Aspergillus and Penicillium, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics” (Samson, R.A and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 83–90. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Gams, W., Christensen, M., Onions, A.H.S., Pitt, J.I. and Samson, R.A. (1986)[“1985”] Infrageneric taxa of Aspergillus, in “Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics”, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds) pp. 55–62. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Gomi, K., Tanaka, A., Iimura, Y. and Takahashi, K., (1989) Rapid differentiation of four related species of koji molds by agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA digested units SMAI restriction enzyme. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 35, 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greuter, W. et al. (1988), International Code of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, July-August, (1987). Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein, W. Germany.Google Scholar
  15. Hearn, V. M., Moutaouakil, M. and Latgé, J.P., (1990) Analysis of components of Aspergillus and Neosartorya mycelial preparations by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”. (Samson, R.A. and J.I. Pitt, Eds), pp. 309–320. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Horie, Y. (1980) Ascospore ornamentation and its application to the taxonomic re-evaluation in Emericella. Trans. mycol. Soc. Japan 21, 483–493.Google Scholar
  17. Kamphuis, H.J., Notermans, S., Veeneman, G.H., Boom, J.H.van and Rombouts, F.M. (1989) A rapid and reliable method for the detection of moulds in foods: Using the latex agglutination assay. J. Food Protect. 52, 244–247.Google Scholar
  18. Kamphuis, H. and Notermans, S. (1992) Development of a technique for immunological detection of fungi, in “Modern Methods in Food Mycology” (Samson, R.A., A.C. Hocking, J.I. Pitt and A.D. King, Eds.), pp. 197–203. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  19. Klich, M. A. (1993) Morphological studies of Aspergillus section Versicolores and related species. Mycologia 85, 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klich, M.A. and Mullaney, E.J. (1987) DNA restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism as a tool for rapid differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from Aspergillus oryzae. Exp. Mycol. 11, 170–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klich, M.A. and Mullaney, E.J. (1989) Use of bleomycin-containing medium to distinguish Aspergillus parasiticus from A. sojae. Mycologia 81, 159–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klich, M.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1985) The theory and practice of distinguishing species of the Aspergillus flavus group. In “Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics”. Klich, M.A. and Pitt, J.I, Eds.) pp. 211–220. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Klich, M.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1988a) A laboratory guide to common Aspergillus species and their teleomorphs. North Ryde, NSW, CSIRO Division of Food Processing.Google Scholar
  24. Klich, M.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1988b) Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from A. parasiticus and other closely related species. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 91, 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kozakiewicz, Z. (1982) The identity and typification of Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycotaxon 15, 293–305.Google Scholar
  26. Kozakiewicz, Z. (1989) Aspergillus species on stored products. Mycol. Papers 161, 1–188.Google Scholar
  27. Kozakiewicz, Z., Frisvad, J.C. Hawksworth, D.L., Pitt, J.I., Samson, R.A. and Stolk, A.C. (1992) Proposal for nomina specifica conservanda and rejicienda in Aspergillus and Penicillium. Taxon 41, 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kozlowski, M. and Stepien, P.R. (1982) Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of members of the genus Aspergillus as an aid in taxonomy. J. gen. Microbiol. 128, 471–476, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuraishi, H., Itoh, M., Tsuzaki, N., Katayama, Y., Yokoyama, T. and Sugiyama, J. (1990) Ubiquinone system as a taxonomic tool in Aspergillus and its teleomorphs, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds.), pp. 407–420. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Kurtzman, C.P., Smiley, M.J., Robnett, C.J. and Wicklow, D.T. (1986) DNA relatedness among wild and domesticated species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 78, 955–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kurtzman, C.P., Horn, B.W. and Hesseltine, C.W. (1987) Aspergillus nomius, a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 53, 147–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kurzeja, K.C. and Garber, E. D. (1973) A genetic study of electrophoretically variant extracellular amylolytic enzymes of wild-type strains of Aspergillus nidulans. Can. J. Gen. Cytol. 15, 275–287.Google Scholar
  33. Kusters-van Someren, M., H.C.M. Kester, Samson, R.A. and Visser, J. (1990) Variation in pectinolytic enzymes of the black Aspergilli: a biochemical and genetic approach, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 321–334. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Kusters-van Someren, M.A., Samson, R.A. and Visser, J. (1991) The use of RFLP analysis in classification of the black Aspergilli: reinterpretation of the Aspergillus niger aggregate. Current Genetics 19, 21–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leslie, L.E., Flannigan, B., and Milner, L.J.R. (1988) Morphological studies on clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Med. Vet. Mycology 26, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liljegren, K., Svendsen, A. and Frisvad, J.C. (1988) Mycotoxin and exoenzyme production by members of Aspergillus section Flavi: An integrated taxonomic approach to their classification. Proceedings Jap. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. Suppl. 1, 35–36.Google Scholar
  37. Matsuda, H., Kohno, S., Maesaki, S., Yamada, H., Koga, H., Tamura, M., Kuraishi, H. and Sugiyama, J. (1992) Application of ubiquinone systems and electrophoretic comparison of enzymes to identification of clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and several other species of Aspergillus. J. Clinic. Microbiol. 3, 1999–2005.Google Scholar
  38. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990a) Restriction enzyme and mitochondrial DNA of the Aspergillus flavus group, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2441–2452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990b) Use of nuclear DNA restriction length polymorphisms to analyze the diversity of the Aspergillus flavus group, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2453–2461.Google Scholar
  40. Mullaney, E.J. and Klich, M.A. (1990) A review of molecular biological techniques for systematic studies of Aspergillus and Penicillium, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”. (Samson, R.A. and J.I. Pitt, Eds.), pp. 301–307. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Murakami, H. (1971) Classification of the koji mold. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiology 17, 281–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Murakami, H. Hayashi, K. and Ushijima, S. (1982) Useful key characters separating three Aspergillus taxa: A. sojae, A. parasiticus, and A. toxicarius. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiology 28, 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nasuno, S. (1971) Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis of alkaline proteinases from Aspergillus species. Agric. Biol. Chem. 35, 1147–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nasuno, S. (1972a) Differentiation of Aspergillus sojae from Aspergillus oryzae by Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 71, 29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nasuno, S. (1972b) Electrophoretic studies of alkaline proteinases from strains of Aspergillus flavus group. Agric.Biol. Chem. 36, 684–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nasuno, S. (1974) Further evidence on differentiations of Aspergillus sojae from Aspergillus oryzae by electrophoretic patterns of cellulase, pectin-lyase, and acid proteinase. Canad. J. Microbiol. 20, 413–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nealson, K. H. and Garber, E. D. (1967) An electrophoretic survey of esterases, phosphatases, and leucine amino-peptidases in mycelial extracts of species of Aspergillus. Mycologia 59, 330–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nielsen, P.V. and Samson, R.A., (1992) Differentiation of food-borne taxa of Neosartorya, in “Modern Methods in Food Mycology” (Samson, R.A., Hocking, A.C., Pitt, J.I. and A.D. King, Eds), pp. 159–168. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  49. Peterson, S. W. (1992) Neosartorya pseudofischeri sp. nov. and its relationship to other species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Mycol. Res. 96, 547–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pitt, J.I. (1986)[“1985”]. Nomenclatorial and taxonomic problems in the genus Eurotium, in “Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics”. (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds) pp. 383–395. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Pitt, J.I. (1989) Recent developments in the study of Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics. J. Appl. Bact., Symp. Suppl. 37S–45S.Google Scholar
  52. Pitt, J.I. and Hocking, A.D. (1985) Fungi and Food Spoilage. Sydney, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Pitt, J.I., Hocking, A.D. and Glenn, D.R. (1983) An improved medium for the detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. J. A.pl. Bact. 54, 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pitt, J.I. and Samson, R.A. (1990a). Approaches to Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics. Stud. Mycol. Baarn 32, 77–91.Google Scholar
  55. Pitt, J.I. and Samson, R.A. (1990b) Taxonomy of Aspergillus Section Restricta, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification,” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 249–257. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Pitt, J.I. and Samson, R.A. (1993) Species names in current use in the Trichocomaceae (Fungi, Eurotiales). Regnum Vegetabile 128, 13–57.Google Scholar
  57. Polonelli, L., Conti, A., Campani, L. and Fanti, F. (1990) Biotyping of Aspergillus fumigatus and related taxa by the yeast killer system, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”. (Samson, R.A. and J.I. Pitt, Eds), pp. 309–320. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Raper, K.B. and Fennell, D.I. (1965) The Genus Aspergillus. Baltimore, Maryland, Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  59. Roquebert, M.F. and Nicot, J. (1986)[“1985”]. Similarities between the genera Stilbothaminium and Aspergillus, in “Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 221–228. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Saito, M., Kusumoto, K. and Kawasumi, T. (1991) A simple method for identification of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by slab Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of alkaline proteinases. Rep. Natl. Food Res, inst. 55, 49–51.Google Scholar
  61. Samson, R.A. (1979) A compilation of the Aspergilli described since (1965). Stud. Mycol., Baarn 18, 1–40.Google Scholar
  62. Samson, R.A. (1992) Current taxonomic schemes of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs in Aspergillus in “The biology and Industrial applications” (Bennett, J. W. and M. A. Klich, Eds), pp. 353–388. Butterworth Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. Samson, R.A. (1993) Current concepts of Aspergillus systematics In “Biotechnology Handbooks vol.20. Aspergillus” (J.E. Smith, Ed.). Plenum, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  64. Samson, R.A. and Evans, H.C. (1992) New species of Gibellula on spiders (Araneida) from South America. Mycologia 84, 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Samson, R.A. and Frisvad, J.C. (1991a). Taxonomic species concepts of Hyphomycetes related to mycotoxin production. Proc. Japan Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 32, 3–10.Google Scholar
  66. Samson, R.A. and Gams, W. (1986)[“1985”] Typification of the species of Aspergillus and associated teleomorphs, in Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds) pp. 31–54. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1986)[“1985”]. Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1990) “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification”. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Samson, R.A. and van Rreene-Hoekstra, E.S. (1988) “Introduction to Food-borne Fungi”. Third edition. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn.Google Scholar
  70. Samson, R.A. and Scifert, K. A. (1986)[“1985”]. The ascomycete genus Penicilliopsis and its anamorphs, in Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Systematics, (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds) pp. 397–426. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Samson, R.A., Nielsen, P.V. and Frisvad, J.C. (1990) The genus Neosartorya: differentiation by scanning electron microscopy and mycotoxin profiles, in “Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds.), pp. 455–467. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Stynen, D., Meulemans, L., Goris, A., Braendlin, N. and Symons, N. (1992) Characteristics of a Latex Agglutination Test, Based on Monoclonal Antibodies, for the Detection of Mould Antigen in Foods, in “Modern Methods in Food Mycology”, (Samson, R.A., A.C. Hocking, J.I. Pitt and A.D..D. King, Eds.), pp. 213–219. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  73. Sugiyama, J. and Yamatoya, T. (1990) Electrophoretic comparison of enzymes as a chemotaxonomic aid among Aspergillus taxa (1). Aspergillus sects. Ornati and Cremei, in “Modern Concepts of Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 385–394. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Tzean, S.S. Chen J.L., Liou, G.Y., Chen, C.C. and Hsu, W.H. (1990) Aspergillus and related teleomorphs of Taiwan. Mycological Monograph no. 1. Culture Collection and Research Center, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  75. Vries, G.A. de and Cormane, R.H. (1969) A study on the possible relationships between certain morphological and physiological properties of Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. and its presence in, or on, human and animal (pulmonary) tissue. Mycol. Mycopath. Appl. 39, 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yamatoya, T., Sugiyama, J. and Kuraishi, H. (1990) Electrophoretic comparison of enzymes as a chemotaxonomic aid among Aspergillus taxa (2). Aspergillus sect. Flavi, in “Modern Concepts of Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds), pp. 395–406. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Samson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesBaarnThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations