Drugs, Crime, and Other Deviant Adaptations

  • Howard B. Kaplan
Part of the Longitudinal Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences book series (LRSB)

Abstract

Few topics have excited more interest in contemporary behavioral science than the causes of deviance. The etiology of deviance has been approached within diverse theoretical frameworks and using a range of methodological orientations. A not inconsiderable part of the literature on this topic deals with the relationships among diverse patterns of deviance: Some deviant patterns are antecedents of particular deviant outcomes, while other deviant patterns are common antecedents of a spectrum of deviant responses; some deviant patterns either have direct effects on or are influenced directly by other deviant patterns, or both affect and are affected; the influence of patterns of deviance on other patterns is often mediated by their effects on intervening variables; and deviant adaptations interact with other variables (including other deviant patterns) to moderate the influence of these adaptations on still other deviant outcomes.

Keywords

Deviant Behavior Normative Expectation Deviant Peer Adolescent Drug Adolescent Drug Abuse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akers, R. L. (1994). Criminological theories: Introduction and evaluation. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Amaro, H., & Zuckerman, B. (1991). Psychoactive substance use and adolescent pregnancy: Compounded risk among inner city adolescent mothers. In M. E. Colten & S. Gore (Eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences (pp. 223–236). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  3. Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Humphrey, R. H. (1988). Explaining the recent decline in marijuana use: Differentiating the effects of perceived risks, disapproval, and general lifestyle. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 92–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., & O’Malley, P. M. (1990). Explaining the recent decline in cocaine use among young adults: Further evidence that perceived risks and disapproval lead to reduced drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (1984). Drug use among young adults: The impacts of roles, status, and social environment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 629–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battjes, R. J. (1988). Prevention of adolescent drug abuse. International Journal of the Addictions, 20, 1113–1134.Google Scholar
  7. Baumrind, D. (1985). Familial antecedents of adolescent drug use: A development perspective. In C. Jones & R. J. Battjes (Eds)., Etiology of drug abuse (NIDA Drug Research Monograph No. 56) (pp. 13–44). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  8. Baumrind, D., & Moselle, K. A. (1985). A developmental perspective on adolescent drug abuse. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 4, 41–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, L. A., Wolin, S. J., & Reiss, D. (1988). Cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems among school aged children of alcoholics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentler, P. M. (1987). Drug use and personality in adolescence and young adulthood: Structural models with nonnormal variables. Child Development, 58, 65–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., Gordon, A. S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: A family interactional approach, Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 116(2), 111–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Gordon, A. S., & Brook, D. W. (1989). The role of older brothers in younger brothers’ drug use viewed in the context of parent and peer influences. Journal of General Psychology, 151, 59–75.Google Scholar
  13. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Gordon, A. S., & Cohen, P. (1986). Some models and mechanisms for explaining the impact of maternal and adolescent characteristics on adolescent stage of drug use. Developmental Psychology, 22, 460–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, S. A. (1989). Life events of adolescents in relation to personal and parental substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 484–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunswick, A. F., & Messeri, P. A. (1984). Causal factors in onset of adolescents’ cigarette smoking: A prospective study of urban black youth. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 3, 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunswick, A. F., Messeri, P. A., & Titus, S. P. (1992). Predictive factors in adult substance abuse: A prospective study of African American adolescents. In M. Glantz & R. Pickens (Eds.), Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 419–472). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryer, J., Nelson, B., Miller, J. B., & Krol, P. (1987). Childhood physical and sexual abuse as factors in adult psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1426–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bukstein, O. G., Brent, D. A., & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1131–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chasnoff, I. J. (1988). Drugs, alcohol, pregnancy and parenting. Boston: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christie, K. A., Burke, J. D., Jr., Regier, D. A., Rae, D. S., Boyd, J., & Locke, B. Z. (1988). Epidemiological evidence for early onset of mental disorders and higher risk of drug abuse in young adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 971–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coleman, L. M. (1986). Stigma: An enigma demystified. In S. C. Ainlay, G. Becker, & L. M. Coleman (Eds.), The dilemma of difference: A multidisciplinary view of stigma (pp. 211–232). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DeMilio, L. (1989). Psychiatric syndromes in adolescent substance abusers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1212–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., & Reid, J. R. (1988). Parent and peer factors associated with drug sampling in early adolescence: Implications for treatment. In E. R. Rahdert & J. Grabowski (Eds.), Adolescent drug abuse: Analysis of treatment research (NIDA Research Monograph 77) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Publications Office.Google Scholar
  25. Donovan, J. E., & Jessor, R. (1985). Structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 890–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DuRant, R. H., Cadenhead, C., Pendergrast, R. A., Slavens, G., & Lindner, C. W. (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among urban black adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 612–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elder, G. H., Jr., Nyugen, T. V., & Caspi, A. (1985). Linking family hardship to children’s lives. Child Development, 56, 361–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliott, D., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Eron, L. (1987). The development of aggressive behavior from the perspective of a developing behaviorism. American Psychologist, 42, 435–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evans, S., & Schaeffer, S. (1987). Incest and chemically dependent women: Treatment implications. Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment, 1, 141–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farrington, D. P. (1989). Later adult life outcomes of offenders and nonoffenders. In M. Brambring, F. Lösel, & H. Skowronek (Eds)., Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention (pp. 220–244). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  33. Fernandez-Pol, B., Bluestone, H., & Mizruchi, M. S. (1988). Inner-city substance abuse patterns: A study of psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14, 41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flay, B. R. (1985). Psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: A review of findings. Health Psychology, 4, 449–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fowler, R. C., Rich, C. L., & Young, D. (1986). San Diego suicide study. II. Substance abuse in young cases. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 962–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Morgan, S. P. (1987). Adolescent mothers in later life. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gardner, L., & Shoemaker, D. J. (1989). Social bonding and delinquency: A comparative analysis. Sociological Quarterly, 30, 481–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Parents’ stressful life events and adolescent depressed mood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 28–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glantz, M. (1992). A developmental psychopathology model of drug abuse vulnerability. In M. Glantz & R. Pickens (Eds.), Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 389–418). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Grube, J. W., & Morgan, M. (1990). Attitude-social support interactions: Contingent consistency effects in the prediction of adolescent smoking, drinking, and drug use. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hammer, T., & Vhelum, P. (1990). Initiation, continuation or discontinuation of cannabis use in the general population. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 899–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hartsough, C. S., & Lambert, N. M. (1987). Pattern and progression of drug use among hyper-actives and controls: A prospective short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 543–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heuvel, A. V. (1988). The timing of parenthood and intergenerational relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holden, M. G., Brown, S. A., & Mott, M. A. (1988). Social support network of adolescents: Relation to family alcohol abuse. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14, 487–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hurrelmann, K. (1987). The limits and potential of social intervention in adolescence: An exemplary analysis. In K. Hurrelmann, F. Kaufmann, & F. Lösel (Eds.), Social intervention: Potential and constraints (pp. 219–328). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  47. Hyman, S. E., & Nestler, E. J. (1993). The molecular foundations of psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  48. Johnson, V. (1988). Adolescent alcohol and marijuana use: A longitudinal assessment of a social learning perspective. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14, 419–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kalter, N., Riemer, B., Brickman, A., & Chen, J. W. (1985). Implications of parental divorce for female development. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 538–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kandel, D. B. (1978). Convergences in prospective longitudinal surveys of drug use in normal populations. In D. B. Kandel (Ed.), Longitudinal research on drug use: Empirical findings and methodological issues (pp. 3–38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere-Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Kandel, D. B. (1990). Parenting styles, drug use, and children’s adjustment in families of young adults. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kandel, D. B., & Raveis, V. H. (1989). Cessation of illicit drug use in young adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 109–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaplan, H. B. (1972). Toward a general theory of psychosocial deviance: The case of aggressive behavior. Social Science & Medicine, 6, 593–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan, H. B. (1975). Self-attitudes and deviant behavior. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear.Google Scholar
  55. Kaplan, H. B. (1980). Deviant behavior in defense of self. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kaplan, H. B. (1982). Self-attitudes and deviant behavior: New directions for theory and research. Youth and Society, 14, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaplan, H. B. (1983). Psychological distress in sociological context: Toward a general theory of psychosocial stress. In H. B. Kaplan (Ed.), Psychosocial stress: Trends in theory and research (pp. 195–264). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kaplan, H. B. (1984). Patterns of juvenile delinquency. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  59. Kaplan, H. B. (1986). Social psychology of self-referent behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kaplan, H. B., Johnson, R. J., & Bailey, C. A. (1987). Deviant peers and deviant behavior: Further elaboration of a model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaplan, H. B., Johnson, R. J., & Bailey, C. A. (1988). Explaining adolescent drug use. Psychiatry, 51, 142–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaplan, H. B., Martin, S. S., & Robbins, C. A. (1982). Applications of a general theory of deviant behavior: Self-derogation and adolescent drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 274–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kellam, S. G., Brown, C., Rubin, B., & Ensminger, M. (1983). Paths leading to teenage psychiatric symptoms and substance use: Developmental epidemiological studies in Woodlawn. In S. Guze, F. Earls, & J. Barrett (Eds.), Childhood psychopathology and development (pp. 17–51). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  64. Kendler, K. S. Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993). Alcoholism and major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 690–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., MacLean, C. J., Heath, A. C., Eaves, L. J., & Kessler, R. C. (1993). Smoking and major depression: A causal analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kessler, R. C., & Magee, W. J. (1994). Childhood family violence and adult recurrent depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khantzian, E. J. (1985). The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: Focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1259–1264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kleinman, P. H. (1978). Onset of addiction: A first attempt at prediction. International Journal of the Addictions, 13, 1217–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Krohn, M. D., Skinner, W. F., Zielinski, M., & Naughton, M. (1990). Elaborating the relationship between age and adolescent cigarette smoking. Deviant Behavior, 10, 105–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leahy, R. L. (1985). The development of the self: Conclusions. In R. L. Leahy (Ed.), The development of self (pp. 295–304). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lerner, J. V., & Vicary, J. R. (1984). Difficult temperament and drug use: Analyses from the New York longitudinal study. Journal of Drug Education, 14, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Levy, J. C, & Deykin, E. Y. (1989). Suicidality, depression, and substance abuse in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1462–1467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Livesay, S., Erlich, S. M., and Finnegan, L. P. (1987). Cocaine and pregnancy: Maternal and infant outcome. Pediatric Research, 21, 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mensch, B. S., & Kandel, D. B. (1988). Do job conditions influence the use of drugs? Journal of Health and Social behavior, 29, 169–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Messner, S. F., Krohn, M. D., & Liska, A. E. (1989). Deviance and crime: Problems and prospects. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  76. Mott, F. L., & Haurin, R. J. (1988). Linkages between sexual activity and alcohol and drug use among American adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 20, 128–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Needle, R. H., Lavee, Y., Su, S., Brown, P., & Doherty, W. (1988). Familial, interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of drug use: A longitudinal comparison of adolescents in treatment, drug-using adolescents not in treatment, and non-drug-using adolescents. International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 1125–1143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives of young adults. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  79. Newcomb, M. D., Bentler, P. M., & Fahy, B. (1987). Cocaine use and psychopathology: Associations among young adults. International Journal of the Addictions, 22, 1167–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Donnell, J., Voss, H. L., Clayton, R. R., Slatin, G., & Room, R. (1976). Young men and drugs: A nationwide survey (NIDA Research Monograph 5). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  81. Osgood, D. W., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1988). The generality of deviance in late adolescence and early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 53, 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Patterson, G. R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychology, 41, 432–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pentz, M. A., MacKinnon, D. P., Dwyer, J. H., Wang, E. Y. I., Hansen, W. B., Flay, B. F., Anderson-Johnson, P., & Anderson-Johnson, C. (1989). Longitudinal effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on regular and experimental smoking in adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 18, 304–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peterson, L., & Zill, N. (1986). Marital disruption and behavior problems in children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Powers, R. J. (1987). Stress as a factor in alcohol use and abuse. In E. L. Gottheil, K. A. Druley, S. P. Pashko, & S. Weinstein (Eds.), Stress and addiction (pp. 248–260). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  86. Robins, L. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  87. Robins, L. N., and Rutter, M. (1990). Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Roehrich, H., & Gold, M. S. (1988). Familial addiction in cocaine abusers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 49, 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ross, C. E. (1994). Overweight and depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 63–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rossi, A. S. (1980). Aging and parenthood in the middle years. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life span development and behavior (pp. 138–205). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  91. Sanderson, W. C., Beck, A. T., & Beck, J. (1990). Syndrome comorbidity in patients with major depression or dysthymia: Prevalence and temporal relationships. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1025–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sebald, H. (1986). Adolescents’ shifting orientation toward parents and peers: A curvilinear trend over recent decades. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shaffer, J. W., Nurco, D. N., Hanlon, T. E., Kinlock, T. W., Duszynski, K. R., & Stephenson, P. (1988). MMPI-168 profiles of male narcotic addicts by ethnic group and city. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 292–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shedler, J., & Block, J. (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. American Psychologist, 45, 612–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shoemaker, D. J. (1990). Theories of delinquency: An examination of explanations of delinquent behavior, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Simcha-Fagan, O., Gersten, J. C., & Langner, T. (1986). Early precursors and concurrent correlates of patterns of illicit drug use in adolescence. Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 7–28.Google Scholar
  97. Simmons, R. G., Burgeson, R., Carlton-Ford, S., & Blyth, D. A. (1987). The impact of cumulative change in early adolescence. Child Development, 58, 1220–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Simons, R. L., Robertson, J. R., & Downs, W. R. (1989). The nature of the association between parental rejection and delinquent behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 297–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Small, S. A. (1988). Parental self-esteem and its relationship to childrearing practices, parent adolescent interaction, and adolescent behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 1063–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Swaim, R. C., Oetting, E. R., Edwards, R., & Beauvais, F. (1989). Links from emotional distress to adolescent drug use: A path model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tolan, P. H. (1988). Delinquent behaviors and male adolescent development: A preliminary study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tress, W., Reister, G., & Gegenheimer, L. (1989). Mental and physical resiliency in spite of a stressful childhood. In M. Brambring, F. Lösel, & H. Skowronek (Eds.), Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention (pp. 173–185). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  103. Weiss, R. D., & Mirin, S. M. (1986). Subtypes of cocaine abusers. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 491–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Werner, E. E. (1989). Vulnerability and resiliency: A longitudinal perspective. In M. Brambring, F. Lösel, & H. Skowronek (Eds.), Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention (pp. 157–172). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  105. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  106. Woody, G. E., Urschel, H. C., III, & Alterman, A. (1992). The many paths to drug dependence. In M. Glantz & R. Pickens (Eds.), Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 491–507). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yamaguchi, K., & Kandel, D. B. (1985). Dynamic relationships between premarital cohabitation and illicit drug use: A life event history analysis of role selection and role socialization. American Sociological Review, 50, 530–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yamaguchi, K., & Kandel, D. B. (1987). Drug use and other determinants of premarital pregnancy and its outcome: An analysis of competing life events. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yandrow, B. (1989). Alcoholism in women. Psychiatric Annals, 19, 243–247.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard B. Kaplan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations