Cloning, Expression and Regulation of Angiotensin II Receptors
Complementary DNAs for angiotensin II type 1 receptor isoforms AT1A and AT1B were cloned by expression cloning from bovine adrenal and rat vascular smooth muscles. Human AT, receptor was also cloned. Seven transmembrane structures emerged. The AT1 type receptor interacted with more than one type of G-proteins. The ligand binding site of AT1 involving Arg167, Lys199, and Asp263 has been identified by site directed mutagenesis. The regulation of the receptors occur at many stages. The isoform, AT2, was also expression cloned from rat pheochromocytoma cells. Although its ligand binding is not affected by stable GTP analogs, it is a seven transmembrane domain receptor. It mediates the modulations of phosphotyrosine phosphatase by angiotensin II and AT2 specific CGP42112A. The modulation was abolished by pertussis toxin. Thus, AT2 belongs to a new class of angiotensin receptors with unique signalling and regulatory mechanisms. AT1 mediates cellular growth. Interestingly, AT2 expression is inversely related to the mitogenic activity of cells.
KeywordsVascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase Bovine Adrenocortical Cell Transmembrane Domain Receptor Particulate Guanylate Cyclase
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