A Meta-Analysis of Studies of Dietary Fat and Breast Cancer Risk

  • N. F. Boyd
  • L. J. Martin
  • M. Noffel
  • G. Lockwood
  • D. L. Tritchler
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 375)

Abstract

We have carried out a meta-analysis to summarize quantitatively the large published literature on dietary fat in the etiology of breast cancer. The summary relative risk for the highest compared to the lowest level of intake for the 20 studies that examined fat as a nutrient was 1.15 (95% CI 1.05–1.25). Cohort studies had a summary relative risk of 0.96 (95% CI 0.80–1.15) and case control studies a relative risk of 1.21 (95% CI 1.10–1.34). The difference between cohort and case control results was entirely attributable to two of the four published cohort studies, the other two giving results similar to those of case control studies. Summary estimates of risk excluded unity for monounsaturated fat and saturated fat (case control studies only), but not for polyunsaturated fat. For the 17 studies that examined food intake, the summary relative risks were 1.22 (95% CI 1.09–1.37) for meat, 1.35 (95% CI 1.19–1.54) for milk, and 1.17 (95% CI 1.02–1.36) for cheese. Summary relative risks for total fat intake were generally higher in studies of higher quality, that adjusted for energy intake and risk factors, that employed population based comparison groups, and that were done in Europe.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Cohort Study Relative Risk Case Control Study Breast Cancer Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. F. Boyd
    • 1
  • L. J. Martin
    • 1
  • M. Noffel
    • 1
  • G. Lockwood
    • 1
  • D. L. Tritchler
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Epidemiology and StatisticsOntario Cancer InstituteTorontoCanada

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