Social and Cultural Factors in Sexual Assault

  • Lana E. Stermac
  • Zindel V. Segal
  • Roy Gillis
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

The search for causes of sexual aggression has included the examination of many factors, including intra- and interpersonal as well as social and cultural variables. The role of social processes has received considerable attention in this area due to various hypotheses about the relationship between social interaction and sexual aggression.

Keywords

Sexual Assault Sexual Harassment Sexual Violence Sexual Offender Sexual Contact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, G. G., Blanchard, E. B., and Becker, J. V. (1978). An integrated treatment program for rapists. In R. T. Rada (Ed.), Clinical aspects of the rapist (pp. 161–214 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  2. Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Cunningham-Rathner, J., Rouleau, J. L., Kaplan, M., and Reich, J. (1984). The treatment of child molesters. Unpublished treatment manual, Emory University, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  3. Abel, G. G., Rouleau, J. L., and Cunningham-Rathner, J. (1985). Sexually aggressive behavior. In W. J. Curran, A. L. McGarry, and S. A. Shah (Eds.), Forensic psychiatry and psychology (pp. 289–313 ). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  4. Alder, C. (1985). An exploration of self-reported sexually aggressive behavior. Crime and Delinquency, 31, 306–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amir, M. (1971). Patterns of forcible rape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Azjen, I., and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Barbaree, H. E., Marshall, W. L., and Connor, J. (1988). The social problem-solving of child molesters. Unpublished manuscript, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Barlow, D. H., Abel, G. G., Blanchard, E. B., Bristow, A. R., and Young, D. L. (1977). A heterosocial skills behavior checklist for males. Behavior Therapy, 8, 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewer, B. B. (1982). Further beyond nine to five: An integration and future directions. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women, and rape. New York: Simon and Schuster. Bunting, A. B., and Reeves, J. B. (1983). Perceived male sex orientation and beliefs about rape. Deviant Behavior, 4, 281–295.Google Scholar
  12. Burt, M. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Callner, D. A., and Ross, S. M. (1976). The reliability and validity of three measures of assertion in a drug addict population. Behavior Therapy, 7, 659–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Check, J. V. (1984). The hostility towards women scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, L., and Lewis, D. J. (1977). Rape: The price of coercive sexuality. Toronto: Canadian Women’s Educational Press.Google Scholar
  16. Committee on Sexual Offenses Against Children and Youths (1984a). Sexual offenses against children (vol. 1 ). Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
  17. Committee on Sexual Offenses Against Children and Youths (1984b). Sexual offenses against children (vol. 2 ). Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
  18. Costin, F. (1985). Beliefs about rape and women’s social roles-a four nation study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Costin, F., and Schwarz, N. (1987). Beliefs about rape and women’s social roles. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crowne, D., and Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deutsch, H. (1944). Psychology of women. New York: Crune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  22. Dukahz, C. (1970). The asbestos diary. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  23. Edelberg, L. (1961). The dark urge. New York: Pyramid Books.Google Scholar
  24. Finkelhor, D. (1979). Psychological, cultural and family factors in incest and family sexual abuse. Journal of Marriage and Family Counseling, 4, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Gilmartin-Zena, P. ( 1987, November). Perceptions about rape: Sex differences within a student population. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Graff, L. A., and Chartier, B. ( 1986, June). Gender socialization and hostility toward women: Their role in men’s responses to sexual stimuli. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  28. Groth, A. N., and Birnbaum, H. J. (1979). Men who rape-The psychology of the offender. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  29. Hall, E. R., Howard, J. A., and Boezio, S. L. (1986). Tolerance of rape: A sexist or antisocial attitude? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 10, 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jones, G. P. (1982). The social study of pederasty: In search of a literature base: An annotated bibliography of sources in English. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 61–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanin, E. J. (1957). Male aggression in dating-courtship relations. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kanin, E. J. (1969). Selected dyadic aspects of male sex aggression. Journal of Sex Research, 5, 12–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kanin, E. J. (1985). Date rapists: Differential sexual socialization and relative deprivation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 219–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirkpatrick, C., and Kanin, E. (1957). Male sex aggression on a university campus. American Sociological Review, 22, 52–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koss, M. P., and Oros, C. J. ( 1980, May). Hidden rape: A survey of the incidence of sexual aggression and victimization on a university campus. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  36. Langevin, R., Ben-Aron, M., Coulthard, R., Heasman, G., Purins, J., Handy, L., Hucker, S. J., Russon, A. E., Day, D., Roper, V., Bain, J., Wortzman, G., and Webster, C. A. (1985). Sexual aggression: Constructing a predictive equation. In R. Langevin (Ed.), Erotic preference, gender identity, and aggression in men (pp. 39–76 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Lipton, D. N., McDonel, E. C., and McFall, R. M. (1987). Heterosocial perception in rapists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55 (1), 17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laws, R. D., and Serber, M. (1975). Measurement and evaluation of assertive training with sexual offenders. In R. E. Hosford and C. S. Moss (Eds.), The crumbling walls: Treatment and counselling of prisoners (pp. 165–172 ). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  39. Malamuth, N. M. (1981a). Rape proclivity among males. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 138–157. Malamuth, N. M. (1981b). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33–47.Google Scholar
  40. Malamuth, N. M., and Check, J. V. P. (1980). Penile tumescence and perceptual responses to rape as a function of victim’s perceived reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 528–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Malamuth, N. M., Haber, S., and Feshbach, S. (1980). Testing hypotheses regarding rape: Exposure to sexual violence, sex differences and the “normality” of rapists. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marshall, W. L., Christie, M. M., and Lanthier, R. D. (1979). Social competence, sexual experience, and attitudes to sex in incarcerated rapists and pedophiles. Report to Solicitor General of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  43. Marshall, W. L., Bates, L., and Ruhl, M. (1984). Hostility in sex offenders. Unpublished manuscript, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario.Google Scholar
  44. McCaldon, R. J. (1967). Rape. Canadian Journal of Corrections, 9, 37–59.Google Scholar
  45. McCormack, A. (1985). The sexual harassment of students by teachers: The case of students in science. Sex Roles, 13, 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Medea, A., and Thompson, K. (1974). Against rape: A survival manual for women. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  47. Mohr, J. W., Turner, R. E., and Jerry, M. B. (1964). Pedophilia and exhibitionism: A handbook. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  48. Morrison, R. L., and Bellack, A. S. (1981). The role of social perception in social skills. Behavior Therapy, 12, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mosher, D. L. and Anderson, R. D. (1986). Macho personality, sexual aggression, and reactions to guided imagery of realistic rape. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nabokov, V. (1966). Lolita. New York: Berkley Medallion.Google Scholar
  51. Offender’s background results in weekend sentence. ( 1987, December). Globe and Mail, p. 18.Google Scholar
  52. Overholser, C., and Beck, S. (1986). Multimethod assessment of rapists, child molesters, and three control groups on behavioral and psychological measures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 682–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Plummer, K. J. (1980). Self help groups for sexual minorities: The case of the pedophile. In D. J. West (Ed.), Sexual offenders in the criminal justice system (pp. 72–90 ). Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  54. Plummer, K. (1981). Pedophilia: Constructing a sociological baseline. In M. Cook and K. Howells (Eds.), Adult sexual interest in children (pp. 221–250 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Pryor, J. B. (1987). Sexual harassment proclivities in men. Sex Roles, 17, 269–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Quinsey, V. L. (1984). Sexual aggression: Studies of offenders against women. In D. N. Weistub (Ed.), Law and mental health: International perspectives (vol. 1; pp. 180–209 ). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Quinsey, V. L. (1986). Men who have sex with children. In D. N. Weistub (Ed.), Law and mental health: International perspectives (vol. 2; pp. 140–172 ). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  58. Rada, R. T. (1978). Classification of the rapist. In R. T. Rada (Ed.), Clinical aspects of the rapist (pp. 117–132 ). New York: Crune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  59. Rapaport, K., and Burkhart, B. R. (1984). Personality and attitudinal characteristics of sexually coercive college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (2), 216–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rathus, S. (1973). A 30-item schedule for assessing assertive behavior. Behavior Therapy, 9, 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reilly, P. J. (1980). Sexual harassment in the Navy. Unpublished master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.Google Scholar
  62. Revitch, E., and Weiss, R. G. (1962). The pedophilic offender. Diseases of the Nervous System, 23, 73–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Righton, P. (1981). The adult. In B. Taylor (Ed.), Perspectives on pedophilia (pp. 24–40 ). London: Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd.Google Scholar
  64. Russell, D. (1984). Sexual exploitation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Sanday, P. R. (1981). The socio-cultural context of rape: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 5–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sattem, L., Savells, J., and Murray, E. (1984). Sex-role stereotypes and commitment of rape. Sex Roles, 11, 849–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Scully, D., and Marolla, J. (1983). Incarcerated rapists: Exploring a sociological model. National Rape Center, National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  68. Segal, Z. V., and Marshall, W. L. (1985). Heterosexual social skills in a population of rapists and child molesters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Segal, Z. V., and Marshall, W. L. (1986). Discrepancies between self-efficacy predictions and actual performance in a population of rapists and child molesters. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10 (3), 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Segal, Z., and Stermac, L. E. (1984). A measure of rapists’ attitudes towards women. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 437–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Spence, J. T., Heimreich, R., and Stapp, J. (1973). A short version of the attitudes towards women scale (ATW). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 2, 219–220.Google Scholar
  72. Stermac, L. E. ( 1988a, February). Child sexual abuse: Myths and realities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Ontario Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  73. Stermac, L. E. ( 1988b, February). Sexual stereotyping: New challenges to old myths. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Ontario Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  74. Stermac, L. E., and Quinsey, V. L. (1985). Social competence among rapists. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 171–185.Google Scholar
  75. Stermac, L. E., and Segal, Z. (in press). Adult sexual contact with children: An examination of cognitive factors. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  76. Stille, R. G., Malamuth, N., and Schallow, J. R. ( 1987, August). Prediction of rape proclivity by rape myth attitudes, and hostility towards women. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Tangri, S. S., Burt, R. M., and Johnson, L. B. (1982). Sexual harassment at work: Three explanatory models. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 33–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (1981). Sexual harassment in the federal workplace: Is it a problem? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  79. Villemez, W. J., and Touhey, J. C. (1977). A measure of individual differences in sex stereotyping and sex discrimination: The Macho scale. Psychological Reports, 1 (2), 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Virkkunen, M. (1981). The child as participating victim. In M. Cook and K. Howells (Eds.), Adult sexual interest in children (pp. 121–138 ). Toronto: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Wilson, K., and Faison, R. (1979). Sexual assault in dating: A profile of the victims. Sociological Research Symposium, 9, 320–326.Google Scholar
  82. Wilson, K., Faison, R., and Britton, G. M. (1983). Cultural aspects of male sex aggression. Deviant Behavior, 4, 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lana E. Stermac
    • 1
  • Zindel V. Segal
    • 2
  • Roy Gillis
    • 3
  1. 1.Forensic Division, Clarke Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Cognitive Behavior Therapies Section, Clarke Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Metropolitan Toronto Forensic ServiceTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations