Contradictions between Brazilian and U.S. Organizations

Implications for Organizational Theory
  • Kim S. Cameron
  • Myung Un Kim
  • Sarah J. Freeman

Abstract

Conceptions of excellence, the quality of work life, value patterns, power relationships, stress factors, and so on have been found to differ among cultures throughout the world. The manner in which individuals perceive their own realities differs significantly among different cultures as individuals process cognitive cues in culturally homogeneous ways (Haire, Ghiselli, & Porter 1963; Hofstede, 1984). Similarly, the organizational behaviors arising from these unique cultural perspectives may also differ in important ways in different countries, and the theories of organizational functioning that arise from observation of that behavior may, therefore, reflect cultural bias.

Keywords

Faculty Member Procedural Justice Distributive Justice Power Distance High Education System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology (pp. 100–235). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, N. J. (1983c). Cross-cultural management research: The ostrich and the trend. Academy of management review, 8, 226–232.Google Scholar
  3. Biddle, B. J., & Thomas, E. J. (1966). Role theory: Concepts and research. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Business Week (June, 1985). “Now It’s All up to Brazil’s Young Turks” pp. 51-54.Google Scholar
  5. Cameron, K. S. (1986). Effectiveness as paradox: Consensus and conflict in conceptions of organizational effectiveness. Management Science, 32, pp. 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cameron, K. S. (1987). Effectiveness and quality in higher education. In M. W. Peterson & L. A. Mets (Eds.), Governance, management and leadership (pp. 222–242). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Child, J. (1981). Culture, contingency and capitalism in the cross-national study of organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 3, 303–356.Google Scholar
  8. Child, J., & Tayeb, M. (1982). Theoretical perspectives in cross-national organizational research. International Studies of Management and Organizations, 12(4), 23–70.Google Scholar
  9. Degler, K. (1971). Neither black nor white: Slavery and race relations in Brazil and the United States. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, P. (1979). Dependent development: The alliance of multinational, state and local capital in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Flynn, P. (1978). Brazil: A political analysis. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  12. Haire, M., Ghiselli, E. E., & Porter, L. W. (1963). Cultural patterns in the role of the manager. Industrial Relations, 2, 95–117.Google Scholar
  13. Hall, A. (1977). Patron-client relations: Concepts and terms. In S. W. Schmidt, J. C. Scott, C. Lande, & L. Guasti (Eds.), Friends, followers and factions (pp. 510–512). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Harris, M. (1964). Patterns of race in the Americas. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  15. Hickson, D. J., Pugh, D. S., & Phesey, D. C. (1969). Operations, technology and organization structure. An empirical reappraisal. Administrative Science Quarterly, 14, 378–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hofstede, G. (1980a, Summer). Motivation, leadership and organizations. Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 42-63.Google Scholar
  17. Hofstede, G. (1980b). Culture’s consequences. International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Hofstede, G. (1984). The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. Academy of Management Review, 9, 389–398.Google Scholar
  19. Jaeger, A. M. (1986). Organization development and national culture. Where’s the fit? Academy of Management Review, 11, 178–190.Google Scholar
  20. Lawlor, H. (1985). Education and national development in Brazil. In Brock, C., & Lawlor, H. (Eds.), Education in Latin America (pp. 130–145). Dover, NH: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  21. Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1969). Organization and environment. Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  22. Leventhal, G. S. (1976). The distribution of rewards and resources in groups and organizations. In L. Berkowitz & E. Walster (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 9, 92–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Locke, E. A. (1978). The ubiquity of goal setting theories of and approach to employee motivation. Academy of Management Review, 3, 594–601.Google Scholar
  25. Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 125–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MacMillan, I. C. (1985). Progress in research on corporate venturing. New York University: Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.Google Scholar
  27. March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1976). Ambiguity and choice in organizations. Bergen, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  28. March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Martin, J. (1981). Relative deprivation: A theory of distributive justice for an era of shrinking resources. Research in Organizational Behavior, 3, 53–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1978). The structure of educational organizations. In M. Meyer (Ed.), Environments and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Expectancy models of job satisfaction, occupational preference, and effort. A theoretical, methodological, and empirical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 1053–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese Challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  33. Ouchi, W. G., & Jaeger, A. M. (1978). Type Z organizations: Stability in the midst of mobility. Academy of Management Review, 3, 305–314.Google Scholar
  34. Pascale, R. T., & Athos, A. G. (1981). The art of Japanese management. New York: Warner.Google Scholar
  35. Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organizations. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.Google Scholar
  36. Sampson, E. E. (1980). Justice and social character. In G. Mikila (Ed.), Justice and social interaction (pp. 285–313). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  37. Skidmore, T. E., & Smith, P. H. (1984). Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Sorge, A. (1983b). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 625–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stein, S. J., & Stein, B. H. (1970). The colonial heritage of Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  41. Tibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Triandis, H. C., Malpas, R. S., & Davidson, A. R. (1973). Psychology and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 24, 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Weick, K. E. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zammuto, R. F. (1982). Assessing organizational effectiveness. Albany, NY: State University of New York-Albany Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim S. Cameron
    • 1
  • Myung Un Kim
    • 1
  • Sarah J. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Business AdministrationUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations